72 research outputs found

    Creating market failure: business-government relations in the British paper-pulp industry, 1950–1980

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    This article examines the nuances and complexities of business-government relations in the British paper-pulp industry between 1950 and 1980 through the prism of interactions between Wiggins, Teape & Co., a paper company, and various U.K. government departments in the postwar period. It highlights the complexity of business-government and interdepartmental relations and tensions, set against the global and domestic paper industry competition and the United Kingdom’s international economic position. Longstanding industry underinvestment and interdepartmental tensions in government are identified as principal contributors to the failing competitiveness of the industry and of British businesses more generally in the twentieth century

    Family and business during the industrial revolution

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    Follow the leader or the pack? Regulatory focus and academic entrepreneurial intentions

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    Drawing on the academic entrepreneurship and regulatory focus theory literature, and applying a multilevel per- spective, this paper examines why university academics intend to engage in formal (spin-off or start-up companies and licensing university research) or informal (collaborative research, contract research, continuous professional development, and contract consulting) commercialization activities and the role local contextual factors, in partic- ular leaders and work-group colleagues (peers), play in their commercialization choices. Based on a survey of 395 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) academics working in 14 Scottish universities, the research findings suggest that an individual’s chronic regulatory focus has a direct effect on their formal and informal commercialization intent. The results reveal that the stronger an individual’s chronic promotion focus the stronger their formal and informal commercialization intentions and a stronger individual chronic prevention focus leads to weaker intentions to engage in informal commercialization. In addition, when contextual interaction effects are considered, leaders and workplace colleagues have different influences on commercialization intent. On the one hand, promotion-focused leaders can strengthen and prevention-focused leaders can under certain cir- cumstances weaken a promotion-focused academic’s formal commercialization intent. On the other hand, the level of workplace colleague engagement, acting as a reference point, strengthens not only promotion-focused academ- ics’ intent to engage in formal commercialization activities, but also prevention-focused academics’ corresponding informal commercialization intent. As such, universities should consider the appointment of leaders who are strong role models and have a track record in formal and/or informal commercialization activities and also con- sider the importance workplace colleagues have on moderating an academic’s intention to engage in different forms of commercialization activities

    From ‘Techniums’ to ‘emptiums’: the failure of a flagship innovation policy in Wales

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    This paper examines the use of European Union Structural Funds to support the development of innovation policy within Wales during the period 2000–06. Drawing on data from the Welsh government and interviews with key stakeholders, it focuses specifically on the Technium programme, a high-profile technology-based innovation intervention that took a predominantly supply-side approach to supporting innovation, resulting in its eventual failure. Consistent within this is an analysis of the efficacy of supply-side policies using European Union funds to support research and development activities to aid economic growth in peripheral, weaker regions

    Unlocking dynamic capabilities in the Scotch whisky industry, 1945–present

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    In this article we examine the development of the Scotch whisky industry since 1945 through the lens of dynamic capabilities. We explain how sui generis acts—novel initiatives outwith the established repertoire of practices of a firm or industry—by external actors joining the industry helped unlock dynamic capabilities at the firm level in the industry which in turn drove change across the sector after a series of takeovers. We detail the key structural changes in the Scotch whisky industry and demonstrate how important external actors can be in effecting sector level change by extending and connecting our analysis to existing debates in business history and strategy research

    Female leadership in contemporary Chinese family firms : a case study

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    Drawing on a case study of a three-generation family business, this paper explores the antecedents and consequences of female leadership in contemporary Chinese family business. Our findings suggest that institutional change in contemporary China affects the role of female family members in the family system, which eventually gave rise to female leadership in China's family businesses. We also propose that in comparison to male leadership, female leadership in Chinese family business is more concerned with balancing work-family conflict; more dependent upon the family's endowment of resources; and more likely to favor a participative (rather than authoritative) decision-making style

    Diagnostic importance of pulmonary interleukin-1beta and interleukin-8 in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

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    BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most commonly fatal nosocomial infection. Clinical diagnosis of VAP remains notoriously inaccurate. The hypothesis was tested that significantly augmented inflammatory markers distinguish VAP from conditions closely mimicking VAP. METHODS: A prospective, observational cohort study was carried out in two university hospital intensive care units recruiting 73 patients with clinically suspected VAP, and a semi-urban primary care practice recruiting a reference group of 21 age- and sex-matched volunteers. Growth of pathogens at >10(4) colony-forming units (cfu)/ml of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) distinguished VAP from "non-VAP". Inflammatory mediators were quantified in BALF and serum. Mediators showing significant differences between patients with and without VAP were analysed for diagnostic utility by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients had recoverable lavage-24% had VAP. BALF interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha were significantly higher in the VAP group (all p<0.005). Using a cut-off of 10 pg/ml, BALF IL-1beta generated negative likelihood ratios for VAP of 0.09. In patients with BALF IL-1beta <10 pg/ml the post-test probability of VAP was 2.8%. Using a cut-off value for IL-8 of 2 ng/ml, the positive likelihood ratio was 5.03. There was no difference in cytokine levels between patients with sterile BALF and those with growth of <10(4) cfu/ml. CONCLUSIONS: BALF IL-1beta and IL-8 are amongst the strongest markers yet identified for accurately demarcating VAP within the larger population of patients with suspected VAP. These findings have potential implications for reduction in unnecessary antibiotic use but require further validation in larger populations

    Corrigendum to "Overview: oxidant and particle photochemical processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (the OP3 project): introduction, rationale, location characteristics and tools" published in Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 169–199, 2010

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    Author(s): Hewitt, CN; Lee, JD; MacKenzie, AR; Barkley, MP; Carslaw, N; Carver, GD; Chappell, NA; Coe, H; Collier, C; Commane, R; Davies, F; Davison, B; DiCarlo, P; Di Marco, CF; Dorsey, JR; Edwards, PM; Evans, MJ; Fowler, D; Furneaux, KL; Gallagher, M; Guenther, A; Heard, DE; Helfter, C; Hopkins, J; Ingham, T; Irwin, M; Jones, C; Karunaharan, A; Langford, B; Lewis, AC; Lim, SF; MacDonald, SM; Mahajan, AS; Malpass, S; McFiggans, G; Mills, G; Misztal, P; Moller, S; Monks, PS; Nemitz, E; Nicolas-Perea, V; Oetjen, H; Oram, DE; Palmer, PI; Phillips, GJ; Pike, R; Plane, JMC; Pugh, T; Pyle, JA; Reeves, CE; Robinson, NH; Stewart, D; Stone, D; Whalley, LK; Yang,

    Leveraging knowledge as a competitive asset? The intensity, performance and structure of universities’ entrepreneurial knowledge exchange activities at a regional level

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    © 2016, The Author(s). Universities are no longer considered to be isolated islands of knowledge, but as institutions increasingly engaged with a range of external partners through entrepreneurial activities. This paper examines the associations between the intensity and performance of knowledge exchange activities undertaken in UK universities with non-academic actors. Drawing on data concerning the structural factors of interactions of universities in the UK with external partners, the paper sheds further light on the nature of these activities through a prism of competitive and uncompetitive regions in order to better understand how universities may be able to leverage both their knowledge and partnerships more effectively as competitive assets. On the one hand, it is found that academics in uncompetitive regions are more intensively engaged in entrepreneurial activities but generate less income from them than their counterparts in competitive regions, suggesting that there are differences in the income-generating capacity of academics across regions. On the other hand, academic knowledge is found to be more strongly bounded within a certain distance in uncompetitive regions whilst geographical distance seems less of a hindrance to academics in competitive regions