97 research outputs found

    Sugar-lowering drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndromestrategies for in vivo administration: Part-II

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    Diabetes is a complex disease characterized by hyperglycemia, together with polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia. While Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) results from genetic, environmental, or immune dysfunction factors leading to pancreatic 脽-cell destruction depriving the organism from endogenous insulin, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance. Depending on the type of diabetes mellitus and drug mechanism to study, the animal model should be carefully selected among the wide variety of the currently available ones. This review discusses the most common animal models currently employed to study T1DM and T2DM. Moreover, an overview on the administration routes that could be used is also discussed.The authors acknowledge the financial support received from Portuguese Science and TechnologyFoundation (FCT/MCT) and from European Funds (PRODER/COMPETE) under the project referenceM-ERA-NET/0004/2015-PAIRED, co-financed by FEDER, under the Partnership Agreement PT2020. The authors also acknowledge the support of the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology under the project ART (2018).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Sugar-lowering drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome - review of classical and new compounds: Part-I

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    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia together with disturbances in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat, which in general results from an insulin availability and need imbalance. In a great number of patients, marketed anti-glycemic agents have shown poor effectiveness in maintaining a long-term glycemic control, thus being associated with severe adverse effects and leading to an emerging interest in natural compounds (e.g., essential oils and other secondary plant metabolites, namely, flavonoid-rich compounds) as a novel approach for prevention, management and/or treatment of either non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T2DM, type 2 DM) and/or Metabolic Syndrome (MS). In this review, some of these promising glucose-lowering agents will be comprehensively discussed.This work was financially supported by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT/MCT) and from European Funds (PRODER/COMPETE) under the project reference M-ERANET/0004/2015-PAIRED and UID/AGR/04033/2019 (CITAB), co-financed by FEDER, under the Partnership Agreement PT2020, and also by the Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology under the project ART(2018).info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    From the transformation object to the artistic research

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    [EN] The develpment of Artistic Research has become relevant to reevaluate and to open new paths to academic research and the relationship between education and learning in CyAD's -Cience and Arts for Design- Division in UAM-Xochimilco, Mexico. The binomial union bwteeen global and local notions represents a way of looking at how we as part of an institution establish institutional practices in investigation and teaching. The joint authorship in this paper is a first step towards this end.[ES] El desarrollo de la Investigaci贸n Art铆stica alcanza pertinencia para revalorar y abrir nuevas vias para la investigaci贸n y la relaci贸n ense帽anza-aprendizaje para el dise帽o en la Divisi贸n de CyAD en la UAM-X en M茅xico. El binomio global-local representa una relaci贸n desde donde mirar la v铆as que como sujetos institu铆dos establecemos hacia pr谩cticas instituyentes en la investigaci贸n y docencia. La figura de la coautor铆a es una primer resolutivo para este fin.Castillejos Saucedo, G.; Gonz谩lez Machado, N.; 脕ngel Gonz谩lez, KAD.; Flores P茅rez, A.; Arroyo Uri贸stegui, AJ.; Correa Rodr铆guez, I.; Flores Avalos, M.... (2017). Del objeto en transformaci贸n a la investigaci贸n art铆stica. En Glocal [codificar, mediar, transformar, vivir] III Congreso Internacional de Investigaci贸n en Artes Visuales. Editorial Universitat Polit猫cnica de Val猫ncia. 782-789. https://doi.org/10.4995/ANIAV.2017.5835OCS78278

    Observation of Higgs boson production in association with a top quark pair at the LHC with the ATLAS detector

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    The observation of Higgs boson production in association with a top quark pair ( tt炉H ), based on the analysis of proton鈥損roton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, is presented. Using data corresponding to integrated luminosities of up to 79.8 fb 鈭1 , and considering Higgs boson decays into bb炉 , WW鈦 , 蟿+蟿鈭 , 纬纬 , and ZZ鈦 , the observed significance is 5.8 standard deviations, compared to an expectation of 4.9 standard deviations. Combined with the tt炉H searches using a dataset corresponding to integrated luminosities of 4.5 fb 鈭1 at 7 TeV and 20.3 fb 鈭1 at 8 TeV, the observed (expected) significance is 6.3 (5.1) standard deviations. Assuming Standard Model branching fractions, the total tt炉H production cross section at 13 TeV is measured to be 670 卤 90 (stat.) 鈭100+110 (syst.) fb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction.Peer Reviewe

    Measurement of photon鈥搄et transverse momentum correlations in 5.02 TeV Pb + Pb and pppp collisions with ATLAS

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    Jets created in association with a photon can be used as a calibrated probe to study energy loss in the medium created in nuclear collisions. Measurements of the transverse momentum balance between isolated photons and inclusive jets are presented using integrated luminosities of 0.49 nb1^{-1} of Pb+Pb collision data at sNN=5.02\sqrt{s_\mathrm{NN}}=5.02 TeV and 25 pb1^{-1} of pppp collision data at s=5.02\sqrt{s}=5.02 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Photons with transverse momentum 63.131.663.1 31.6 GeV and pseudorapidity jet7/8\left|\eta^\mathrm{jet}\right| 7\pi/8. Distributions of the per-photon jet yield as a function of xJx_\mathrm{J\gamma}, (1/N)(dN/dxJ)(1/N_\gamma)(\mathrm{d}N/\mathrm{d}x_\mathrm{J\gamma}), are corrected for detector effects via a two-dimensional unfolding procedure and reported at the particle level. In pppp collisions, the distributions are well described by Monte Carlo event generators. In Pb+Pb collisions, the xJx_\mathrm{J\gamma} distribution is modified from that observed in pppp collisions with increasing centrality, consistent with the picture of parton energy loss in the hot nuclear medium. The data are compared with a suite of energy-loss models and calculations.Peer Reviewe

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults

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    Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities(.)(1,2) This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity(3-6). Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.Peer reviewe

    Height and body-mass index trajectories of school-aged children and adolescents from 1985 to 2019 in 200 countries and territories: a pooled analysis of 2181 population-based studies with 65 million participants

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    Summary Background Comparable global data on health and nutrition of school-aged children and adolescents are scarce. We aimed to estimate age trajectories and time trends in mean height and mean body-mass index (BMI), which measures weight gain beyond what is expected from height gain, for school-aged children and adolescents. Methods For this pooled analysis, we used a database of cardiometabolic risk factors collated by the Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor Collaboration. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1985 to 2019 in mean height and mean BMI in 1-year age groups for ages 5鈥19 years. The model allowed for non-linear changes over time in mean height and mean BMI and for non-linear changes with age of children and adolescents, including periods of rapid growth during adolescence. Findings We pooled data from 2181 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in 65 million participants in 200 countries and territories. In 2019, we estimated a difference of 20 cm or higher in mean height of 19-year-old adolescents between countries with the tallest populations (the Netherlands, Montenegro, Estonia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina for boys; and the Netherlands, Montenegro, Denmark, and Iceland for girls) and those with the shortest populations (Timor-Leste, Laos, Solomon Islands, and Papua New Guinea for boys; and Guatemala, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Timor-Leste for girls). In the same year, the difference between the highest mean BMI (in Pacific island countries, Kuwait, Bahrain, The Bahamas, Chile, the USA, and New Zealand for both boys and girls and in South Africa for girls) and lowest mean BMI (in India, Bangladesh, Timor-Leste, Ethiopia, and Chad for boys and girls; and in Japan and Romania for girls) was approximately 9鈥10 kg/m2. In some countries, children aged 5 years started with healthier height or BMI than the global median and, in some cases, as healthy as the best performing countries, but they became progressively less healthy compared with their comparators as they grew older by not growing as tall (eg, boys in Austria and Barbados, and girls in Belgium and Puerto Rico) or gaining too much weight for their height (eg, girls and boys in Kuwait, Bahrain, Fiji, Jamaica, and Mexico; and girls in South Africa and New Zealand). In other countries, growing children overtook the height of their comparators (eg, Latvia, Czech Republic, Morocco, and Iran) or curbed their weight gain (eg, Italy, France, and Croatia) in late childhood and adolescence. When changes in both height and BMI were considered, girls in South Korea, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and some central Asian countries (eg, Armenia and Azerbaijan), and boys in central and western Europe (eg, Portugal, Denmark, Poland, and Montenegro) had the healthiest changes in anthropometric status over the past 3路5 decades because, compared with children and adolescents in other countries, they had a much larger gain in height than they did in BMI. The unhealthiest changes鈥攇aining too little height, too much weight for their height compared with children in other countries, or both鈥攐ccurred in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, New Zealand, and the USA for boys and girls; in Malaysia and some Pacific island nations for boys; and in Mexico for girls. Interpretation The height and BMI trajectories over age and time of school-aged children and adolescents are highly variable across countries, which indicates heterogeneous nutritional quality and lifelong health advantages and risks

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in 鈭歴 = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector