429 research outputs found

    Suppressing Protest: Human Rights Violations in the U.S. Response to Occupy Wall Street

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    In September 2011, waves of protests against mounting socioeconomic injustice broke out across the United States, capturing the attention of the country. The Occupy Wall Street movement, inspired by similar protests around the globe, used the occupation of public space and mass demonstrations to call attention to a wide array of shared concerns. The movement also used public assemblies to debate concerns and promote direct democratic participation. Within weeks of their emergence, the protests dramatically expanded and deepened U.S. political discourse around the widening gap between rich and poor, bank bailouts and impunity for financial crimes, and the role of money in politics. The response of U.S. authorities to the protests also received significant attention. Images of police using pepper spray on seated students, the arrests of thousands of peaceful protesters across the country, midnight raids on encampments, baton-swinging officers, marches accompanied by phalanxes of riot police, and officers obstructing and arresting journalists were beamed around the world. This is the first in a series of reports examining the responses of U.S. authorities to the Occupy protests. Through an eight-month-long study of the response in New York City, together with comparative data collected from cities across the United States, this report highlights major policy concerns and serious violations of the rights of protesters. Further detailed studies will be published in the coming months on the response of authorities in Boston, Charlotte, Oakland, and San Francisco. Government responses to Occupy Wall Street in the United States have varied significantly, both within and across cities. Indeed, there have been examples of good practice, including through welcoming assemblies, using modern democratic policing styles that promote negotiation to facilitate protests, and enforcing strict controls on any use of police force. But across the United States, abusive and unlawful protest regulation and policing practices have been and continue to be alarmingly evident. This report follows a review of thousands of news reports and hundreds of hours of video, extensive firsthand observation, and detailed witness interviews

    Personal Constructs and Adjustment in Secondary Hypothyroidism

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    Secondary hypothyroidism is caused by treatment for hyperthyroidism and is a chronic condition. After adequate treatment, people can continue to experience persistent physical and depressive symptoms. There is a lack of research into the psychological factors involved in the condition, such as how people adjust to hypothyroidism. The study used Kelly’s (1955) Personal Construct Theory to explore the way in which patients construe (appraise) themselves with hypothyroidism and how this relates to coping, depression and hypothyroid symptoms. Twenty participants were recruited from an endocrinology clinic and online, through thyroid support organisations. Participants completed a semi-structured interview called a repertory grid and self-report measures of coping (Brief COPE), depression (HADS) and hypothyroid symptoms (ThySRQ). Repertory grid measures were extracted such as distances between different views of the self. The results showed that how unfavourably the self now was viewed compared to self before a thyroid disorder was positively correlated with depression, dysfunctional coping and hypothyroid symptoms. Identification with a negative view of hypothyroidism was associated with poorer mental and physical health and with dysfunctional coping. Polarized (i.e. black-and-white) construing and tight (i.e. rigid) construing were significantly and positively related to depression scores. Tightness of construing was also related to the number of hypothyroid symptoms experienced. Dysfunctional coping was positively correlated with depression and hypothyroid symptoms. Those with a history of depression experienced significantly more hypothyroid symptoms. Exploratory multiple regression analyses uncovered that how unfavourably the person viewed themselves now compared with before any thyroid problem, hypothyroid symptom frequency and dysfunctional coping accounted for 82.9% of the variance in depression. This highlights the importance of understanding how people construe the experience of hypothyroidism and their coping strategies and therefore psychological interventions may be helpful. Limitations include a small sample size and a correlational design, whereby cause and effect conclusions cannot be drawn

    Cataloguers: the new endangered species

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    While cataloguing has always been a traditional librarian specialisation it has been questioned whether librarians and their professional skills are still needed to perform such tasks. This paper revisits the question of the future evolution and/or possible extinction of cataloguing and cataloguers and asks is there a role for cataloguers&rsquo; skills in the future? What will those roles look like? How do we prepare future librarians for these roles? These question will be answered by sharing Lesa Maclean&rsquo;s personal transformation from cataloguer to metadata specialist, a common transformation today; examination of a selection of literature from the last decade; as well as results of original research into the perceptions of the future role of cataloguers, based on a survey. Results support the view that cataloguers are ensuring their own survival in the future by taking on a proactive role in today&rsquo;s information society. <br /

    The hidden harm: alcohol’s impact on children and families

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    Examines the prevalence and effects of heavy drinking on families and children, and the extent to which they persisted or changed over time. Summary The 2015 study examined the prevalence and effects of heavy drinking on families and children, and the extent to which they persisted or changed over time. It paints a concerning picture of the prevalence of alcohol-related family and domestic violence in Australia, shedding new light on a hidden dimension of alcohol harms that occurs largely behind closed doors. Key findings The hidden harm draws on two national surveys of alcohol’s harm to others, service system data and qualitative interviews with families, providing for the first time a detailed and valuable insight into the magnitude of the problem and the large numbers of Australian children who are being put at risk. In 2011 there were 29,684 police-reported incidents of alcohol-related domestic violence in Australia, and that’s just in the four states and territories where this data is available. Children are being verbally abused, left in unsupervised or unsafe situations, physically hurt or exposed to domestic violence because of others’ drinking. Many were also witnessing verbal or physical conflict, drinking or inappropriate behaviour. Over a million children (22 per cent of all Australian children) are estimated to be affected in some way by the drinking of others (2008). 142,582 children were substantially affected (2008), and more than 10,000 Australian children are in the child protection system because of a carers drinking (2006-07)

    Expanding Public Insurance Eligibility Increases Substance Use Treatment Provider Acceptance of Public Insurance and Increases Adolescent Access to Treatment

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    Expanding eligibility thresholds for Medicaid and CHIP leads to increased access to and use of substance use treatment among adolescents

    Quantifying bacterial transfer from patients to staff during burns dressing and bed changes : implications for infection control

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    Routine nursing activities such as dressing/bed changes increase bacterial dispersal from burns patients, potentially contaminating healthcare workers (HCW) carrying out these tasks. HCW thus become vectors for transmission of nosocomial infection between patients. The suspected relationship between %total body surface area (%TBSA) of burn and levels of bacterial release has never been fully established. Bacterial contamination of HCW was assessed by contact plate samples (n = 20) from initially sterile gowns worn by the HCW during burns patient dressing/bed changes. Analysis of 24 gowns was undertaken and examined for relationships between %TBSA, time taken for activity, and contamination received by the HCW. Relationships between size of burn and levels of HCW contamination, and time taken for the dressing/bed change and levels of HCW contamination were best described by exponential models. Burn size correlated more strongly (R2 = 0.82, p < 0.001) than time taken (R2 = 0.52, p < 0.001), with levels of contamination received by the HCW. Contamination doubled with every 6–9% TBSA increase in burn size. Burn size was used to create a model to predict bacterial contamination received by a HCW carrying out bed/dressing changes. This may help with the creation of burn-specific guidelines on protective clothing worn by HCW caring for burns patients

    Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation

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    The purpose of this paper is to show how “realist synthesis” methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008. Open and pattern coding led to the identification of 10 barrier and nine enabler mechanisms influencing project implementation across the sample. Eight case studies (four demonstrating successful implementation; four demonstrating less than successful implementation) were used for depth exploration of these mechanisms. High level theories were developed, from these findings, on implementation effectiveness in projects addressing alcohol and other drug use problems

    Review of volatile substance use among Indigenous people

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    Clinical studies of the high-intensity narrow-spectrum light environmental decontamination system (HINS-light EDS), for continuous disinfection in the burn unit inpatient and outpatient settings

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    Infections are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients and prevention of contamination from exogenous sources including the hospital environment is becoming increasingly emphasised. The High-Intensity Narrow-Spectrum light Environmental Decontamination System (HINS-light EDS) is bactericidal yet safe for humans, allowing continuous disinfection of the environment surrounding burn patients. Environmental samples were collected from inpatient isolation rooms and the outpatient clinic in the burn unit, and comparisons were then made between the bacterial contamination levels observed with and without use of the HINS-light EDS. Over 1000 samples were taken. Inpatient studies, with sampling carried out at 0800 h, demonstrated a significant reduction in the average number of bacterial colonies following HINS-light EDS use of between 27% and 75%, (p<0.05). There was more variation when samples were taken at times of increased activity in the room. Outpatient studies during clinics demonstrated a 61% efficacy in the reduction of bacterial contamination on surfaces throughout the room during the course of a clinic (p=0.02). The results demonstrate that use of the HINS-light EDS allows efficacious bacterial reductions over and above that achieved by standard cleaning and infection control measures in both inpatient and outpatient settings in the burn unit