89 research outputs found

    Developing a Predictive Model to Prioritize HIV Partner Notification in North Carolina

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    Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) in North Carolina (NC) have less time to conduct partner notification due to competing responsibilities while simultaneously facing increased case loads due to increased HIV testing. We developed a model to predict undiagnosed HIV infection in sexual partners to prioritize DIS interviews

    Fast electron transfer through a single molecule natively structured redox protein

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    The electron transfer properties of proteins are normally measured as molecularly averaged ensembles. Through these and related measurements, proteins are widely regarded as macroscopically insulating materials. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), we present new measurements of the conductance through single-molecules of the electron transfer protein cytochrome b562 in its native conformation, under pseudo-physiological conditions. This is achieved by thiol (SH) linker pairs at opposite ends of the molecule through protein engineering, resulting in defined covalent contact between a gold surface and a platinum–iridium STM tip. Two different orientations of the linkers were examined: a long-axis configuration (SH-LA) and a short-axis configuration (SH-SA). In each case, the molecular conductance could be ‘gated’ through electrochemical control of the heme redox state. Reproducible and remarkably high conductance was observed in this relatively complex electron transfer system, with single-molecule conductance values peaking around 18 nS and 12 nS for the SH-SA and SH-LA cytochrome b562 molecules near zero electrochemical overpotential. This strongly points to the important role of the heme co-factor bound to the natively structured protein. We suggest that the two-step model of protein electron transfer in the STM geometry requires a multi-electron transfer to explain such a high conductance. The model also yields a low value for the reorganisation energy, implying that solvent reorganisation is largely absent

    The Association Between Oral Contraceptives, Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate, and Trichomoniasis

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    Hormonal contraception use by women may increase the risk of acquiring certain sexually transmitted infections. We explored the effect of hormonal contraceptive use, specifically oral contraception (OC), and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) on Trichomonas vaginalis infections in women

    Intent to Receive Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine, Compliance with Social Distancing and Sources of Information in NC, 2009

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    BACKGROUND:Public adherence to influenza vaccination recommendations has been low, particularly among younger adults and children under 2, despite the availability of safe and effective seasonal vaccine. Intention to receive 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine has been estimated to be 50% in select populations. This report measures knowledge of and intention to receive pandemic vaccine in a population-based setting, including target groups for seasonal and H1N1 influenza. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:On August 28-29, 2009, we conducted a population-based survey in 2 counties in North Carolina. The survey used the 30x7 two-stage cluster sampling methodology to identify 210 target households. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Knowledge of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine was high, with 165 (80%) aware that a vaccine was being prepared. A total of 133 (64%) respondents intended to receive pandemic vaccine, 134 (64%) intended to receive seasonal vaccine, and 109 (53%) intended to receive both. Reporting great concern about H1N1 infection (PR 1.55; 95%CI: 1.30, 1.85), receiving seasonal influenza vaccine in 2008-09 (PR 1.47; 95%CI: 1.18, 1.82), and intending to receive seasonal influenza vaccine in 2009-10 (PR 1.27; 95%CI: 1.14, 1.42) were associated with intention to receive pandemic vaccine. Not associated were knowledge of vaccine, employment, having children under age 18, gender, race/ethnicity and age. Reasons cited for not intending to get vaccinated include not being at risk for infection, concerns about vaccine side effects and belief that illness caused by pandemic H1N1 would be mild. Forty-five percent of households with children under 18 and 65% of working adults reported ability to comply with self-isolation at home for 7-10 days if recommended by authorities. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE:This is the first report of a population based rapid assessment used to assess knowledge and intent to receive pandemic vaccine in a community sample. Intention to receive pandemic and seasonal vaccines was higher than previously published reports. To reach persons not intending to receive pandemic vaccine, public health communications should focus on the perceived risk of infection and concerns about vaccine safety

    Medical and Household Characteristics Associated with Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Patients Admitted to a Rural Tertiary Care Hospital

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    BackgroundMethicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a threat to patient safety and public health. Understanding how MRSA is acquired is important for prevention efforts. This study investigates risk factors for MRSA nasal carriage among patients at an eastern North Carolina hospital in 2011.MethodsUsing a case-control design, hospitalized patients ages 18 – 65 years were enrolled between July 25, 2011 and December 15, 2011 at Vidant Medical Center, a tertiary care hospital that screens all admitted patients for nasal MRSA carriage. Cases, defined as MRSA nasal carriers, were age and gender matched to controls, non-MRSA carriers. In-hospital interviews were conducted, and medical records were reviewed to obtain information on medical and household exposures. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to derive odds ratio (OR) estimates of association between MRSA carriage and medical and household exposures.ResultsIn total, 117 cases and 119 controls were recruited to participate. Risk factors for MRSA carriage included having household members who took antibiotics or were hospitalized (OR: 3.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.24–8.57) and prior hospitalization with a positive MRSA screen (OR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.12–9.23). A lower proportion of cases than controls were previously hospitalized without a past positive MRSA screen (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19–0.87).ConclusionThese findings suggest that household exposures are important determinants of MRSA nasal carriage in hospitalized patients screened at admission

    Grip Force Reveals the Context Sensitivity of Language-Induced Motor Activity during “Action Words

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    Studies demonstrating the involvement of motor brain structures in language processing typically focus on \ud time windows beyond the latencies of lexical-semantic access. Consequently, such studies remain inconclusive regarding whether motor brain structures are recruited directly in language processing or through post-linguistic conceptual imagery. In the present study, we introduce a grip-force sensor that allows online measurements of language-induced motor activity during sentence listening. We use this tool to investigate whether language-induced motor activity remains constant or is modulated in negative, as opposed to affirmative, linguistic contexts. Our findings demonstrate that this simple experimental paradigm can be used to study the online crosstalk between language and the motor systems in an ecological and economical manner. Our data further confirm that the motor brain structures that can be called upon during action word processing are not mandatorily involved; the crosstalk is asymmetrically\ud governed by the linguistic context and not vice versa

    Higher Protein Intake Is Not Associated with Decreased Kidney Function in Pre-Diabetic Older Adults Following a One-Year Intervention—A Preview Sub-Study

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    Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World). Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR), serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03) and serum urea (p = 0.05) after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.Peer reviewe

    Nonrandomized Controlled Trial of Artesunate plus Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine with or without Primaquine for Preventing Posttreatment Circulation of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

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    ABSTRACT Artemisinin combination therapies eliminate immature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but not mature gametocytes, which may persist for up to 1 month posttreatment. A single dose of primaquine, which is inexpensive and effective against mature gametocytes, could be added to further reduce the potential for posttreatment parasite transmission. Currently, we have few data regarding the effectiveness or safety of doing so. We collected data from 21 therapeutic efficacy trials of the National Antimalarial Drug Resistance Monitoring System of India conducted during 2009 to 2010, wherein 9 sites used single-dose primaquine (0.75 mg/kg of body weight) administered on day 2 along with artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AS+SP) while 12 did not. We estimated the effect of primaquine on posttreatment gametocyte clearance and the total number of gametocyte-weeks as determined by microscopy. We compared the median area under the curve for gametocyte density and reported adverse events. One thousand three hundred thirty-five patients completed the antimalarial drug treatment. Adjusting for region, primaquine increased the rate of gametocyte clearance (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 3.3), prevented 45% (95% CI, 19 to 62) of posttreatment gametocyte-weeks, and decreased the area under the gametocyte density curve over the 28-day follow-up compared to AS+SP alone ( P value = 0.01). The results were robust to other adjustment sets, and the estimated effect of primaquine increased during sensitivity analysis on the measurement of exposure time. No serious adverse events were detected. In conclusion, the addition of primaquine to AS+SP was effective in reducing the posttreatment presence of P. falciparum gametocytes. Primaquine was well tolerated and could be administered along with an artemisinin combination therapy as the first-line therapy

    Compositional analysis of the associations between 24-h movement behaviours and cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults with pre-diabetes from the PREVIEW study : cross-sectional baseline analysis

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    Background Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep have been shown to be associated with cardio-metabolic health. However, these associations are typically studied in isolation or without accounting for the effect of all movement behaviours and the constrained nature of data that comprise a finite whole such as a 24 h day. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the composition of daily movement behaviours (including sleep, sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA)) and cardio-metabolic health, in a cross-sectional analysis of adults with pre-diabetes. Further, we quantified the predicted differences following reallocation of time between behaviours. Methods Accelerometers were used to quantify daily movement behaviours in 1462 adults from eight countries with a body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg center dot m(- 2), impaired fasting glucose (IFG; 5.6-6.9 mmol center dot l(- 1)) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 7.8-11.0 mmol center dot l(- 1) 2 h following oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT). Compositional isotemporal substitution was used to estimate the association of reallocating time between behaviours. Results Replacing MVPA with any other behaviour around the mean composition was associated with a poorer cardio-metabolic risk profile. Conversely, when MVPA was increased, the relationships with cardiometabolic risk markers was favourable but with smaller predicted changes than when MVPA was replaced. Further, substituting ST with LIPA predicted improvements in cardio-metabolic risk markers, most notably insulin and HOMA-IR. Conclusions This is the first study to use compositional analysis of the 24 h movement composition in adults with overweight/obesity and pre-diabetes. These findings build on previous literature that suggest replacing ST with LIPA may produce metabolic benefits that contribute to the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the asymmetry in the predicted change in risk markers following the reallocation of time to/from MVPA highlights the importance of maintaining existing levels of MVPA.Peer reviewe
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