697 research outputs found

    Enabling Runtime Verification of Causal Discovery Algorithms with Automated Conditional Independence Reasoning (Extended Version)

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    Causal discovery is a powerful technique for identifying causal relationships among variables in data. It has been widely used in various applications in software engineering. Causal discovery extensively involves conditional independence (CI) tests. Hence, its output quality highly depends on the performance of CI tests, which can often be unreliable in practice. Moreover, privacy concerns arise when excessive CI tests are performed. Despite the distinct nature between unreliable and excessive CI tests, this paper identifies a unified and principled approach to addressing both of them. Generally, CI statements, the outputs of CI tests, adhere to Pearl's axioms, which are a set of well-established integrity constraints on conditional independence. Hence, we can either detect erroneous CI statements if they violate Pearl's axioms or prune excessive CI statements if they are logically entailed by Pearl's axioms. Holistically, both problems boil down to reasoning about the consistency of CI statements under Pearl's axioms (referred to as CIR problem). We propose a runtime verification tool called CICheck, designed to harden causal discovery algorithms from reliability and privacy perspectives. CICheck employs a sound and decidable encoding scheme that translates CIR into SMT problems. To solve the CIR problem efficiently, CICheck introduces a four-stage decision procedure with three lightweight optimizations that actively prove or refute consistency, and only resort to costly SMT-based reasoning when necessary. Based on the decision procedure to CIR, CICheck includes two variants: ED-CICheck and ED-CICheck, which detect erroneous CI tests (to enhance reliability) and prune excessive CI tests (to enhance privacy), respectively. [abridged due to length limit

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function ðð¥with constraintsð ð 𥠥 ðandð´ð¥ = ð. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Search for heavy resonances decaying to two Higgs bosons in final states containing four b quarks