59 research outputs found

    A multiple system of high-mass YSOs surrounded by disks in NGC7538 IRS1

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    NGC7538 IRS1 is considered the best high-mass accretion disk candidate around an O-type young star in the northern hemisphere. We investigated the 3D kinematics and dynamics of circumstellar gas with very high linear resolution, from tens to 1500 AU, with the ultimate goal of building a comprehensive dynamical model for this YSO. We employed four different observing epochs of EVN data at 6.7 GHz, spanning almost eight years, which enabled us to measure, besides line-of-sight (l.o.s.) velocities and positions, also l.o.s. accelerations and proper motions of methanol masers. In addition, we imaged with the JVLA-B array highly-excited ammonia inversion lines, from (6,6) to (13,13), which enabled us to probe the hottest molecular gas very close to the exciting source(s). We found five 6.7 GHz maser clusters which are distributed over a region extended N-S across ~1500 AU and are associated with three peaks of the radio continuum. We proposed that these maser clusters identify three individual high-mass YSOs, named IRS1a, IRS1b, and IRS1c. We modeled the maser clusters in IRS1a and IRS1b in terms of edge-on disks in centrifugal equilibrium. In the first case, masers may trace a quasi-Keplerian thin disk, orbiting around a high-mass YSO, IRS1a, of up to 25 solar masses. This YSO dominates the bolometric luminosity of the region. The second disk is both massive (<16 Msun within ~500 AU) and thick, and the mass of the central YSO, IRS1b, is constrained to be at most a few solar masses. In summary, we present compelling evidence that NGC7538 IRS1 is not forming just one single high-mass YSO, but consists of a multiple system of high-mass YSOs, which are surrounded by accretion disks, and are probably driving individual outflows. This new model naturally explains all the different orientations and disk/outflow structures proposed for the region in previous models.Comment: 34 pages, 18 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    CH3OH and H2O maser associations at very high angular resolution

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    6.7 and 12.2 GHz CH_{3}OH (methanol) and 22.2 GHz H_{2}O masers are believed to be good tracers of the earliest phases of high-mass star formation. Interferometric and VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observations have shown that water masers are predominantly associated with the innermost portions of the jets/outflows emerging from (proto-)stellar objects. On the other hand, the astrophysical environment traced by the 6.7 GHz (and the associated 12.2 GHz) CH_{3}OH masers is still to be more precisely determined. So far, most high-resolution studies have focused either on CH_{3}OH or on H_{2}O masers and little is known on their connection, wehereas it would be important to study both types of maser emission in the same object. The goal of our long-term project is to perform interferometric and VLBI observations of H_{2}O and CH_3OH masers towards a selected sample of high-mass YSOs where both maser types have been detected. This work presents preliminary results obtained for a few objects of our sample, and discusses possible implications

    Hot Ammonia around O-type Young Stars. I. JVLA imaging of Ammonia (6,6) to (14,14) in NGC7538 IRS1

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    To constrain theoretical models of high-mass star formation, observational signatures of mass accretion in O-type forming stars are desirable. Using the JVLA, we have mapped the hot and dense molecular gas in the hot core NGC7538 IRS1, with 0.2'' angular resolution, in seven metastable (J=K) inversion transitions of ammonia: (J,K)=(6,6), (7,7), (9,9), (10,10), (12,12), (13,13), and (14,14). These lines arise from energy levels between ~400 K and ~1950 K above the ground state, and are observed in absorption against the HC-HII region associated with NGC7538 IRS1. With a 500 AU linear resolution, we resolve the elongated North-South ammonia structure into two compact components: the main core and a southernmost component. Previous observations of the radio continuum with a 0.08'' (or 200 AU) resolution, resolved in turn the compact core in two (northern and southern) components. These features correspond to a triple system of high-mass YSOs IRS1a, IRS1b, and IRS1c identified with VLBI measurements of methanol masers. The velocity maps of the compact core show a clear velocity gradient in all lines, which is indicative of rotation in a (circumbinary) envelope, containing ~40 solar masses (dynamical mass). In addition, we derived physical conditions of the molecular gas: rotational temperatures ~280 K, ammonia column densities ~1.4-2.5 x 10^19 cm-2, H_2 volume densities ~3.5-6.2 x 10^10 cm-3, and a total gas mass in the range of 19-34 solar masses, for the main core. We conclude that NGC7538 IRS1 is the densest hot molecular core known, containing a rotating envelope which hosts a multiple system of high-mass YSOs, possibly surrounded by accretion disks. Future JVLA observations in the A-configuration are needed to resolve the binary system in the core and may allow to study the gas kinematics in the accretion disks associated with individual binary members.Comment: 16 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    A Double-Jet System in the G31.41+0.31 Hot Molecular Core

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    This work presents a detailed study of the gas kinematics towards the "Hot Molecular Core" (HMC) G31.41+0.31 via multi-epoch VLBI observations of the H2O 22 GHz and CH3OH 6.7 GHz masers, and single-epoch VLBI of the OH 1.6 GHz masers. Water masers present a symmetric spatial distribution with respect to the HMC center, where two nearby (0.2" apart), compact, VLA sources (labeled "A" and "B") are previously detected. The spatial distribution of a first group of water masers, named "J1", is well fit with an elliptical profile, and the maser proper motions mainly diverge from the ellipse center, with average speed of 36 km s-1. These findings strongly suggest that the "J1" water maser group traces the heads of a young (dynamical time of 1.3 10^3 yr), powerful (momentum rate of ~0.2 M_sun yr-1 km s-1), collimated (semi-opening angle ~10 deg) jet emerging from a MYSO located close (within 0.15") to the VLA source "B". Most of the water features not belonging to "J1" present an elongated (about 2" in size), NE--SW oriented (PA = 70 deg), S-shape distribution, which we denote with the label "J2". The elongated distribution of the "J2" group and the direction of motion, approximately parallel to the direction of elongation, of most "J2" water masers suggests the presence of another collimated outflow, emitted from a MYSO near the VLA source "A". The orientation of the "J2" jet agrees well with that (PA = 68 deg) of the well-defined V_LSR gradient across the HMC revealed by previous interferometric, thermal line observations. Furthermore, the "J2" jet is powerful enough to sustain the large momentum rate, 0.3 M_sun yr-1 km s-1, estimated assuming that the V_LSR gradient represents a collimated outflow. These two facts lead us to favour the interpretation of the V_LSR gradient across the G31.41+0.31 HMC in terms of a compact and collimated outflow.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysic

    A 10-MM_{\odot} YSO with a Keplerian disk and a nonthermal radio jet

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    We previously observed the star-forming region G16.59-0.05 through interferometric observations of both thermal and maser lines, and identified a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) which is surrounded by an accretion disk and drives a nonthermal radio jet. We performed high-angular-resolution (beam FWHM ~0.15") 1.2-mm continuum and line observations towards G16.59-0.05 with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The main dust clump, with size ~104^4 au, is resolved into four relatively compact (diameter ~2000 au) millimeter (mm) sources. The source harboring the high-mass YSO is the most prominent in molecular emission. By fitting the emission profiles of several unblended and optically thin transitions of CH3_3OCH3_3 and CH3_3OH, we derived gas temperatures inside the mm-sources in the range 42--131 K, and calculated masses of 1--5 MM_{\odot}. A well-defined Local Standard of Rest velocity (Vlsr) gradient is detected in most of the high-density molecular tracers at the position of the high-mass YSO, pinpointed by compact 22-GHz free-free emission. This gradient is oriented along a direction forming a large (~70 degree) angle with the radio jet, traced by elongated 13-GHz continuum emission. The butterfly-like shapes of the P-V plots and the linear pattern of the emission peaks of the molecular lines at high velocity confirm that this Vlsr gradient is due to rotation of the gas in the disk surrounding the high-mass YSO. The disk radius is ~500 au, and the Vlsr distribution along the major axis of the disk is well reproduced by a Keplerian profile around a central mass of 10±\pm2 MM_{\odot}. The position of the YSO is offset by >~ 0.1" from the axis of the radio jet and the dust emission peak. To explain this displacement we argue that the high-mass YSO could have moved from the center of the parental mm source owing to dynamical interaction with one or more companions.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures, accepted by Astronomy & Astrophysics, Main Journa

    VLBI observations of H2O masers towards high-mass Young Stellar Objects

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    We have conducted multi-epoch VLBI observations of the 22.2 GHz water masers towards three massive star forming regions (Sh 2-255 IR, WB89-234, AFGL 5142). For the maser fetures persistent in time, accurate values of the proper motions are derived. The comparison of the VLBI 22.2 GHz maps with the highest-resolution images of the sources Sh 2-255 IR and WB89-234 in several thermal tracers, may suggest that the water masers are most likely tracing the inner portion of the molecular outflows detected at much larger-scales. This interpretation is also confirmed by the results obtained by fitting to the data two different kinematical models, a Keplerian disk and a conical outflow. Towards AFGL 5142 the water maser features are distributed in two different structures, whose axes are nearly perpendicular to each other. A possible interpretation is that the maser emission is tracing the disk/jet system nearby the forming YSO

    3D velocity fields from methanol and water masers in an intermediate-mass protostar

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    We report multi-epoch VLBI observations of molecular masers towards the high-mass star forming region AFGL 5142, leading to the determination of the 3D velocity field of circumstellar molecular gas at radii 3OH maser emission enabled, for the first time, a direct measurement of infall of a molecular envelope on to an intermediate-mass protostar (radius of 300 AU, velocity of 5 km s-1, and infall rate of 6 × 10-4 n 8 M ⊙ yr-1, where n 8 is the ambient volume density in units of 108 cm-3). In addition, our measurements of H2O maser (and radio continuum) emission revealed a collimated bipolar molecular outflow (and ionized jet) from MM-1. The evidence of simultaneous accretion and outflow at small spatial scales, makes AFGL 5142 an extremely compelling target for high-angular resolution studies of high-mass star formation
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