141 research outputs found

    Regulation of ABCC6 trafficking and stability by a conserved C-terminal PDZ-like sequence

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    Mutations in the ABCC6 ABC-transporter are causative of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). The loss of functional ABCC6 protein in the basolateral membrane of the kidney and liver is putatively associated with altered secretion of a circulatory factor. As a result, systemic changes in elastic tissues are caused by progressive mineralization and degradation of elastic fibers. Premature arteriosclerosis, loss of skin and vascular tone, and a progressive loss of vision result from this ectopic mineralization. However, the identity of the circulatory factor and the specific role of ABCC6 in disease pathophysiology are not known. Though recessive loss-of-function alleles are associated with alterations in ABCC6 expression and function, the molecular pathologies associated with the majority of PXE-causing mutations are also not known. Sequence analysis of orthologous ABCC6 proteins indicates the C-terminal sequences are highly conserved and share high similarity to the PDZ sequences found in other ABCC subfamily members. Genetic testing of PXE patients suggests that at least one disease-causing mutation is located in a PDZ-like sequence at the extreme C-terminus of the ABCC6 protein. To evaluate the role of this C-terminal sequence in the biosynthesis and trafficking of ABCC6, a series of mutations were utilized to probe changes in ABCC6 biosynthesis, membrane stability and turnover. Removal of this PDZ-like sequence resulted in decreased steady-state ABCC6 levels, decreased cell surface expression and stability, and mislocalization of the ABCC6 protein in polarized cells. These data suggest that the conserved, PDZ-like sequence promotes the proper biosynthesis and trafficking of the ABCC6 protein. © 2014 Xue et al

    Multilineage hematopoietic recovery with concomitant antitumor effects using low dose Interleukin-12 in myelosuppressed tumor-bearing mice

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine well known for its role in immunity. A lesser known function of IL-12 is its role in hematopoiesis. The promising data obtained in the preclinical models of antitumor immunotherapy raised hope that IL-12 could be a powerful therapeutic agent against cancer. However, excessive clinical toxicity, largely due to repeat dose regimens, and modest clinical response observed in the clinical trials have pointed to the necessity to design protocols that minimize toxicity without affecting the anti-tumor effect of IL-12. We have focused on the lesser known role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and hypothesized that an important clinical role for IL-12 in cancer may be as an adjuvant hematological cancer therapy. In this putative clinical function, IL-12 is utilized for the prevention of cancer therapy-related cytopenias, while providing concomitant anti-tumor responses over and above responses observed with the primary therapy alone. This putative clinical function of IL-12 focuses on the dual role of IL-12 in hematopoiesis and immunity.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We assessed the ability of IL-12 to facilitate hematopoietic recovery from radiation (625 rad) and chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in two tumor-bearing murine models, namely the EL4 lymphoma and the Lewis lung cancer models. Antitumor effects and changes in bone marrow cellularity were also assessed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We show herein that carefully designed protocols, in mice, utilizing IL-12 as an adjuvant to radiation or chemotherapy yield facile and consistent, multilineage hematopoietic recovery from cancer therapy-induced cytopenias, as compared to vehicle and the clinically-utilized cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (positive control), while still providing concomitant antitumor responses over and above the effects of the primary therapy alone. Moreover, our protocol design utilizes single, low doses of IL-12 that did not yield any apparent toxicity.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our results portend that despite its past failure, IL-12 appears to have significant clinical potential as a hematological adjuvant cancer therapy.</p

    HIV-Induced T-Cell Activation/Exhaustion in Rectal Mucosa Is Controlled Only Partially by Antiretroviral Treatment

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    Peripheral blood T-cells from untreated HIV-1-infected patients exhibit reduced immune responses, usually associated with a hyperactivated/exhausted phenotype compared to HAART treated patients. However, it is not clear whether HAART ameliorates this altered phenotype of T-cells in the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), the main site for viral replication. Here, we compared T-cells from peripheral blood and GALT of two groups of chronically HIV-1-infected patients: untreated patients with active viral replication, and patients on suppressive HAART. We characterized the T-cell phenotype by measuring PD-1, CTLA-4, HLA-DR, CD25, Foxp3 and granzyme A expression by flow cytometry; mRNA expression of T-bet, GATA-3, ROR-Îłt and Foxp3, and was also evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and rectal lymphoid cells. In HIV-1+ patients, the frequency of PD-1+ and CTLA-4+ T-cells (both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) was higher in the GALT than in the blood. The expression of PD-1 by T-cells from GALT was higher in HIV-1-infected subjects with active viral replication compared to controls. Moreover, the expression per cell of PD-1 and CTLA-4 in CD4+ T-cells from blood and GALT was positively correlated with viral load. HAART treatment decreased the expression of CTLA-4 in CD8+ T cells from blood and GALT to levels similar as those observed in controls. Frequency of Granzyme A+ CD8+ T-cells in both tissues was low in the untreated group, compared to controls and HAART-treated patients. Finally, a switch towards Treg polarization was found in untreated patients, in both tissues. Together, these findings suggest that chronic HIV-1 infection results in an activated/exhausted T-cell phenotype, despite T-cell polarization towards a regulatory profile; these alterations are more pronounced in the GALT compared to peripheral blood, and are only partiality modulated by HAART

    Host-Adaptation of Francisella tularensis Alters the Bacterium's Surface-Carbohydrates to Hinder Effectors of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

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    The gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis survives in arthropods, fresh water amoeba, and mammals with both intracellular and extracellular phases and could reasonably be expected to express distinct phenotypes in these environments. The presence of a capsule on this bacterium has been controversial with some groups finding such a structure while other groups report that no capsule could be identified. Previously we reported in vitro culture conditions for this bacterium which, in contrast to typical methods, yielded a bacterial phenotype that mimics that of the bacterium's mammalian, extracellular phase.SDS-PAGE and carbohydrate analysis of differentially-cultivated F. tularensis LVS revealed that bacteria displaying the host-adapted phenotype produce both longer polymers of LPS O-antigen (OAg) and additional HMW carbohydrates/glycoproteins that are reduced/absent in non-host-adapted bacteria. Analysis of wildtype and OAg-mutant bacteria indicated that the induced changes in surface carbohydrates involved both OAg and non-OAg species. To assess the impact of these HMW carbohydrates on the access of outer membrane constituents to antibody we used differentially-cultivated bacteria in vitro to immunoprecipitate antibodies directed against outer membrane moieties. We observed that the surface-carbohydrates induced during host-adaptation shield many outer membrane antigens from binding by antibody. Similar assays with normal mouse serum indicate that the induced HMW carbohydrates also impede complement deposition. Using an in vitro macrophage infection assay, we find that the bacterial HMW carbohydrate impedes TLR2-dependent, pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages. Lastly we show that upon host-adaptation, the human-virulent strain, F. tularensis SchuS4 also induces capsule production with the effect of reducing macrophage-activation and accelerating tularemia pathogenesis in mice.F. tularensis undergoes host-adaptation which includes production of multiple capsular materials. These capsules impede recognition of bacterial outer membrane constituents by antibody, complement, and Toll-Like Receptor 2. These changes in the host-pathogen interface have profound implications for pathogenesis and vaccine development

    The role of hypothalamic H1 receptor antagonism in antipsychotic-induced weight gain

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    Treatment with second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), notably olanzapine and clozapine, causes severe obesity side effects. Antagonism of histamine H1 receptors has been identified as a main cause of SGA-induced obesity, but the molecular mechanisms associated with this antagonism in different stages of SGA-induced weight gain remain unclear. This review aims to explore the potential role of hypothalamic histamine H1 receptors in different stages of SGA-induced weight gain/obesity and the molecular pathways related to SGA-induced antagonism of these receptors. Initial data have demonstrated the importance of hypothalamic H1 receptors in both short- and long-term SGA-induced obesity. Blocking hypothalamic H1 receptors by SGAs activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a well-known feeding regulator. During short-term treatment, hypothalamic H1 receptor antagonism by SGAs may activate the AMPK—carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 signaling to rapidly increase caloric intake and result in weight gain. During long-term SGA treatment, hypothalamic H1 receptor antagonism can reduce thermogenesis, possibly by inhibiting the sympathetic outflows to the brainstem rostral raphe pallidus and rostral ventrolateral medulla, therefore decreasing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Additionally, blocking of hypothalamic H1 receptors by SGAs may also contribute to fat accumulation by decreasing lipolysis but increasing lipogenesis in white adipose tissue. In summary, antagonism of hypothalamic H1 receptors by SGAs may time-dependently affect the hypothalamus-brainstem circuits to cause weight gain by stimulating appetite and fat accumulation but reducing energy expenditure. The H1 receptor and its downstream signaling molecules could be valuable targets for the design of new compounds for treating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity

    Lipid (per) oxidation in mitochondria:an emerging target in the ageing process?

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    Lipids are essential for physiological processes such as maintaining membrane integrity, providing a source of energy and acting as signalling molecules to control processes including cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis. Disruption of lipid homeostasis can promote pathological changes that contribute towards biological ageing and age-related diseases. Several age-related diseases have been associated with altered lipid metabolism and an elevation in highly damaging lipid peroxidation products; the latter has been ascribed, at least in part, to mitochondrial dysfunction and elevated ROS formation. In addition, senescent cells, which are known to contribute significantly to age-related pathologies, are also associated with impaired mitochondrial function and changes in lipid metabolism. Therapeutic targeting of dysfunctional mitochondrial and pathological lipid metabolism is an emerging strategy for alleviating their negative impact during ageing and the progression to age-related diseases. Such therapies could include the use of drugs that prevent mitochondrial uncoupling, inhibit inflammatory lipid synthesis, modulate lipid transport or storage, reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress and eliminate senescent cells from tissues. In this review, we provide an overview of lipid structure and function, with emphasis on mitochondrial lipids and their potential for therapeutic targeting during ageing and age-related disease

    Antiinflammatory Therapy with Canakinumab for Atherosclerotic Disease

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    Background: Experimental and clinical data suggest that reducing inflammation without affecting lipid levels may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the inflammatory hypothesis of atherothrombosis has remained unproved. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial of canakinumab, a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-1β, involving 10,061 patients with previous myocardial infarction and a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level of 2 mg or more per liter. The trial compared three doses of canakinumab (50 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg, administered subcutaneously every 3 months) with placebo. The primary efficacy end point was nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: At 48 months, the median reduction from baseline in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level was 26 percentage points greater in the group that received the 50-mg dose of canakinumab, 37 percentage points greater in the 150-mg group, and 41 percentage points greater in the 300-mg group than in the placebo group. Canakinumab did not reduce lipid levels from baseline. At a median follow-up of 3.7 years, the incidence rate for the primary end point was 4.50 events per 100 person-years in the placebo group, 4.11 events per 100 person-years in the 50-mg group, 3.86 events per 100 person-years in the 150-mg group, and 3.90 events per 100 person-years in the 300-mg group. The hazard ratios as compared with placebo were as follows: in the 50-mg group, 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.07; P = 0.30); in the 150-mg group, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.74 to 0.98; P = 0.021); and in the 300-mg group, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99; P = 0.031). The 150-mg dose, but not the other doses, met the prespecified multiplicity-adjusted threshold for statistical significance for the primary end point and the secondary end point that additionally included hospitalization for unstable angina that led to urgent revascularization (hazard ratio vs. placebo, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.95; P = 0.005). Canakinumab was associated with a higher incidence of fatal infection than was placebo. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio for all canakinumab doses vs. placebo, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.06; P = 0.31). Conclusions: Antiinflammatory therapy targeting the interleukin-1β innate immunity pathway with canakinumab at a dose of 150 mg every 3 months led to a significantly lower rate of recurrent cardiovascular events than placebo, independent of lipid-level lowering. (Funded by Novartis; CANTOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01327846.
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