15 research outputs found

    CANAL DISH (CD), THE NEW ANTIMICROBIAL TESTING APPARATUS

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    Objective: This writing aims to introduce new antimicrobial test apparatus called Canal Dish (CD), theoretically.Methods: We have designed two types of CD such as Circular CD (CCD) and Square CD (SCD). Internally, the CCD is a 80 mm diameter circular while the SCD is a 80×80 mm square CD plate. Both of them contain 2(40×2) mm parallel travelling canals from the each CD-centre having radius of 3 mm. Canals are 6 mm in depth.Results: The features of CCD and SCD indicate possible allowance of various size, low media consuming, the inclusion of multiple microorganisms and/or test samples/doses, ease of handling; therefore, understanding, rapidity, and economy.Conclusion: CD may replace currently used Petri dishes due to its cost-effectiveness, rapidity, ease of handling and a wider range of applicability.Keywords: Antimicrobial assay, Canal dish, Circular, Square, New apparatu

    COFFEE: A HEALTH FUEL-BLOT POPULAR DRINKING

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    Now, the days begin with cups of coffee worldwide. Caffeine is the main component of coffee, which is vastly consumed as a psychoactive agent, and in varieties of dietary supplements. Day by day coffee and caffeinated-consumption areas are expanding. Only a single cup of coffee contains thousands of biochemical. Otherwise, during roasting, some of which turn to convert other chemicals moieties. Thus, the coffee is an interesting item to the drug scientists. Upon this jackpot, a number of researches have been done on coffee and its chemical components; in which many postulations are still in contentious and some are unclear to the coffee users. Upon going through the stand-point, this study has been snapshot to sketch a complete overview on coffee and its components. Our finding depicts constituents of coffee to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, and cardioprotective activities. But the anti-cancerous effect of coffee components is not clear yet. In conclusion, coffee, and its constituents are in important in phytopharmacological research.Keywords: Coffee, Coffee components, Health-effect

    Toxicogenetic study of omeprazole and the modulatory effects of retinol palmitate and ascorbic acid on Allium cepa

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    © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ This author accepted manuscript is made available following 12 month embargo from date of publication (May 2018) in accordance with the publisher’s archiving policyOmeprazole (OME) is a proton pump inhibitor used for the treatment of various gastric and intestinal disease; however, studies on its effects on the genetic materials are still restricted. The present study aimed to evaluate possible toxicogenic effects of OME in Allium cepa meristems with the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for DNA damage, mutagenic, toxic and cytotoxic effects. Additionally, retinol palmitate (RP) and ascorbic acid (AA) were also co-treated with OME to evaluate possible modulatory effects of OME-induced cytogenetic damages. OME was tested at 10, 20 and 40 μg/mL, while RP and AA at 55 μg/mL and 352.2 μg/mL, respectively. Copper sulphate (0.6 μg/mL) and dechlorinated water were used as positive control and negative control, respectively. The results suggest that OME induced genotoxicity and mutagenicity in A. cepa at all tested concentrations. It was noted that cotreatment of OME with the antioxidant vitamins RP and/or AA significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited and/or modulated all toxicogenic damages induced by OME. These observations demonstrate their antigenotoxic, antimutagenic, antitoxic and anticitotoxic effects in A. cepa. This study indicates that application of antioxidants may be useful tools to overcome OME-induced toxic effects

    Post-intervention Status in Patients With Refractory Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab During REGAIN and Its Open-Label Extension

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether eculizumab helps patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) achieve the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) post-intervention status of minimal manifestations (MM), we assessed patients' status throughout REGAIN (Safety and Efficacy of Eculizumab in AChR+ Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis) and its open-label extension. METHODS: Patients who completed the REGAIN randomized controlled trial and continued into the open-label extension were included in this tertiary endpoint analysis. Patients were assessed for the MGFA post-intervention status of improved, unchanged, worse, MM, and pharmacologic remission at defined time points during REGAIN and through week 130 of the open-label study. RESULTS: A total of 117 patients completed REGAIN and continued into the open-label study (eculizumab/eculizumab: 56; placebo/eculizumab: 61). At week 26 of REGAIN, more eculizumab-treated patients than placebo-treated patients achieved a status of improved (60.7% vs 41.7%) or MM (25.0% vs 13.3%; common OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-4.5). After 130 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 88.0% of patients achieved improved status and 57.3% of patients achieved MM status. The safety profile of eculizumab was consistent with its known profile and no new safety signals were detected. CONCLUSION: Eculizumab led to rapid and sustained achievement of MM in patients with AChR+ refractory gMG. These findings support the use of eculizumab in this previously difficult-to-treat patient population. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: REGAIN, NCT01997229; REGAIN open-label extension, NCT02301624. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that, after 26 weeks of eculizumab treatment, 25.0% of adults with AChR+ refractory gMG achieved MM, compared with 13.3% who received placebo

    Minimal Symptom Expression' in Patients With Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody-Positive Refractory Generalized Myasthenia Gravis Treated With Eculizumab

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    The efficacy and tolerability of eculizumab were assessed in REGAIN, a 26-week, phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), and its open-label extension

    Assessment of micronucleus frequency in the peripheral blood of female rats in persistent estrus treated with selective estrogen receptor modulators

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    The aim of this study was to evaluate micronucleus (MN) frequency in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of female rats in persistent estrus (a model developed to mimic polycystic ovary syndrome) treated with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, tamoxifen, and raloxifene). Forty female Wistar-Hannover rats were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: Group I (normally cycling rats) and Group II (persistent estrus) both received only vehicle, while Group III (persistent estrus) was treated with tamoxifen (250 mu g/animal/day) and Group IV (persistent estrus) was treated with raloxifene (750 mu g/animal/day). Tamoxifen and raloxifene were given by oral gavage beginning on postnatal day 90 and continuing for 30 consecutive days. Peripheral blood samples were collected from tails 1 day following the last exposure. Blood smears were made on glass slides and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. ANOVA and a Tukey post-hoc test were used for data analysis. Mean percentages of MN were 1.82 +/- 0.13, 5.20 +/- 0.24, 3.32 +/- 0.13, and 3.04 +/- 0.12 in Groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The results indicate that tamoxifen and raloxifene similarly reduced the formation of MNPCE of female rats in persistent estrus (P &lt; 0.0001 for Groups III and IV vs. Group II), using the dosages and time periods applied in the present study. The data suggest possibly antimutagenic effects of SERMs under high levels of estrogens. The findings also suggest that this is an interesting animal model for studying the genotoxicity of estrogens. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

    Consistent improvement with eculizumab across muscle groups in myasthenia gravis

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    Objective: To assess whether eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, improves patient- and physician-reported outcomes (evaluated using the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale, respectively) in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis across four domains, representing ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups. Methods: Patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis were randomized 1:1 to receive either placebo or eculizumab during the REGAIN study (NCT01997229). Patients who completed REGAIN were eligible to continue into the open-label extension trial (NCT02301624) for up to 4 years. The four domain scores of each of the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale recorded throughout REGAIN and through 130 weeks of the open-label extension were analyzed. Results: Of the 125 patients who participated in REGAIN, 117 enrolled in the open-label extension; 61 had received placebo and 56 had received eculizumab during REGAIN. Patients experienced rapid improvements in total scores and all four domain scores of both the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale with eculizumab treatment. These improvements were sustained through 130 weeks of the open-label extension. Interpretation: Eculizumab treatment elicits rapid and sustained improvements in muscle strength across ocular, bulbar, respiratory, and limb/gross motor muscle groups and in associated daily activities in patients with refractory anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis

    Safety and efficacy of eculizumab in anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis (REGAIN): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study

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    Background Complement is likely to have a role in refractory generalised myasthenia gravis, but no approved therapies specifically target this system. Results from a phase 2 study suggested that eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, produced clinically meaningful improvements in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive refractory generalised myasthenia gravis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of eculizumab in this patient population in a phase 3 trial. Methods We did a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study (REGAIN) in 76 hospitals and specialised clinics in 17 countries across North America, Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years, with a Myasthenia Gravis-Activities of Daily Living (MG-ADL) score of 6 or more, Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) class II\ue2\u80\u93IV disease, vaccination against Neisseria meningitides, and previous treatment with at least two immunosuppressive therapies or one immunosuppressive therapy and chronic intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange for 12 months without symptom control. Patients with a history of thymoma or thymic neoplasms, thymectomy within 12 months before screening, or use of intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange within 4 weeks before randomisation, or rituximab within 6 months before screening, were excluded. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to either intravenous eculizumab or intravenous matched placebo for 26 weeks. Dosing for eculizumab was 900 mg on day 1 and at weeks 1, 2, and 3; 1200 mg at week 4; and 1200 mg given every second week thereafter as maintenance dosing. Randomisation was done centrally with an interactive voice or web-response system with patients stratified to one of four groups based on MGFA disease classification. Where possible, patients were maintained on existing myasthenia gravis therapies and rescue medication was allowed at the study physician's discretion. Patients, investigators, staff, and outcome assessors were masked to treatment assignment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to week 26 in MG-ADL total score measured by worst-rank ANCOVA. The efficacy population set was defined as all patients randomly assigned to treatment groups who received at least one dose of study drug, had a valid baseline MG-ADL assessment, and at least one post-baseline MG-ADL assessment. The safety analyses included all randomly assigned patients who received eculizumab or placebo. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997229. Findings Between April 30, 2014, and Feb 19, 2016, we randomly assigned and treated 125 patients, 62 with eculizumab and 63 with placebo. The primary analysis showed no significant difference between eculizumab and placebo (least-squares mean rank 56\uc2\ub76 [SEM 4\uc2\ub75] vs 68\uc2\ub73 [4\uc2\ub75]; rank-based treatment difference \ue2\u88\u9211\uc2\ub77, 95% CI \ue2\u88\u9224\uc2\ub73 to 0\uc2\ub796; p=0\uc2\ub70698). No deaths or cases of meningococcal infection occurred during the study. The most common adverse events in both groups were headache and upper respiratory tract infection (ten [16%] for both events in the eculizumab group and 12 [19%] for both in the placebo group). Myasthenia gravis exacerbations were reported by six (10%) patients in the eculizumab group and 15 (24%) in the placebo group. Six (10%) patients in the eculizumab group and 12 (19%) in the placebo group required rescue therapy. Interpretation The change in the MG-ADL score was not statistically significant between eculizumab and placebo, as measured by the worst-rank analysis. Eculizumab was well tolerated. The use of a worst-rank analytical approach proved to be an important limitation of this study since the secondary and sensitivity analyses results were inconsistent with the primary endpoint result; further research into the role of complement is needed. Funding Alexion Pharmaceuticals
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