1,192 research outputs found

    Integration of molecular characterization of microorganisms in a global antimicrobial resistance surveillance program

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    © 2001 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has incorporated molecular strain typing and resistance genotyping as a means of providing additional information that may be useful for understanding pathogenic microorganisms worldwide. Resistance phenotypes of interest include multidrug-resistant pathogens, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQR) strains of gram-negative bacilli and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clusters of 2 isolates within a given resistance profile that are linked temporally and by hospital location are flagged for DNA fingerprinting. Further characterization of organisms with respect to resistance genotype is accomplished with use of polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. This process has been highly successful in identifying clonal spread within clusters of multiresistant pathogens. Between 50% and 90% of MRSA clusters identified by phenotypic screening contained evidence of clonal spread. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, ESBL-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common pathogens causing clusters of infection, and 50% of recognized clusters demonstrate clonal spread. Clusters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia have been noted with clonal spread among patients with urinary tract, respiratory, and bloodstream infections. Characterization of mutations in the FQR-determining region of phenotypically susceptible isolates of E. coli and S. pneumoniae has identified first-stage mutants among as many as 40% of isolates. The ability to characterize organisms phenotypically and genotypically is extremely powerful and provides unique information that is important in a global antimicrobial surveillance program.M. A. Pfaller, J. Acar, R. N. Jones, J. Verhoef, J. Turnidge, and H. S. Sade

    The trend of susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species from 1999 to 2002 in Taiwan

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    BACKGROUND: Candida species have various degrees of susceptibility to common antifungal drugs. The extent of resistance to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida glabrata isolates causing candidemia has been reported. Active surveillance may help us to monitor the trend of susceptibility to antifungal drugs and to determine if there is an emerging co-resistance to both drugs of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata in Taiwan. METHODS: The susceptibilities to amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species collected in 1999 and 2002 of the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) were determined by the microdilution method. RESULTS: The antifungal susceptibilities of 342 and 456 isolates collected from 11 hospitals participating in both TSARY 1999 and TSARY 2002, respectively, have been determined. The resistance rate to amphotericin B has increased from 0.3% in the TSARY1999 to 2.2% in the TSARY 2002. In contrast, the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased from 8.8% to 2.2%. Nevertheless, significantly more C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to fluconazole in the TSARY 2002 (47.4%) than that in the TSARY 1999 (20.8%). There were 9.8% and 11% of C. glabrata isolates having susceptible-dose dependent and resistant phenotype to fluconazole in the TSARY 1999, verse 45.3% and 2.1% in the TSARY 2002. CONCLUSION: There was an increase of resistance rate to amphotericin B in C. glabrata. On the other hand, although the resistance rate to fluconazole has decreased, almost half of C. glabrata isolates were not susceptible to this drug. Hence, continuous monitoring the emerging of co-resistance to both amphotericin B and fluconazole of Candida species, specifically, of C. glabrata, will be an important early-warning system

    Comparison of Human and Soil Candida tropicalis Isolates with Reduced Susceptibility to Fluconazole

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    Infections caused by treatment-resistant non-albicans Candida species, such as C. tropicalis, has increased, which is an emerging challenge in the management of fungal infections. Genetically related diploid sequence type (DST) strains of C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole circulated widely in Taiwan. To identify the potential source of these wildly distributed DST strains, we investigated the possibility of the presence in soil of such C. tropicalis strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DST typing methods. A total of 56 C. tropicalis isolates were recovered from 26 out of 477 soil samples. Among the 18 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, 9 belonged to DST149 and 3 belonged to DST140. Both DSTs have been recovered from our previous studies on clinical isolates from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY) program. Furthermore, these isolates were more resistant to agricultural azoles. We have found genetically related C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole from the human hosts and environmental samples. Therefore, to prevent patients from acquiring C. tropicalis with reduced susceptibility to azoles, prudent use of azoles in both clinical and agricultural settings is advocated

    Epidemiological trends in nosocomial candidemia in intensive care

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    BACKGROUND: Infection represents a frequent complication among patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and mortality is high. In particular, the incidence of fungal infections, especially due to Candida spp., has been increasing during the last years. METHODS: In a retrospective study we studied the etiology of candidemia in critically ill patients over a five-year period (1999–2003) in the ICU of the San Martino University Hospital in Genoa, Italy. RESULTS: In total, 182 episodes of candidaemia were identified, with an average incidence of 2.22 episodes/10 000 patient-days/year (range 1.25–3.06 episodes). Incidence of candidemia increased during the study period from 1.25 in 1999 to 3.06/10 000 patient-days/year in 2003. Overall, 40% of the fungemia episodes (74/182) were due to C.albicans, followed by C. parapsilosis(23%), C.glabrata (15%), C.tropicalis (9%) and other species (13%). Candidemia due to non-albicans species increased and this was apparently correlated with an increasing use of azoles for prophylaxis or empirical treatment. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a shift in the species of Candida causing fungemia in a medical and surgical ICU population during a 5 year period. The knowledge of the local epidemiological trends in Candida species isolated in blood cultures is important to guide therapeutic choices

    Susceptibility of Candida glabrata biofilms to echinocandins: alterations in the matrix composition

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    Candidiases are the most recurrent fungal infections, especially among immunosuppressed patients. Although Candida albicans is still the most widespread isolated species, non-Candida albicans Candida species have been increasing. The goal of this work was to determine the susceptibility of C. glabrata biofilms to echinocandins and to evaluate their effect on the biofilm matrix composition, comparing the results with other Candida species. Drug susceptibilities were assessed through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of caspofungin (Csf) and micafugin (Mcf). The -1,3 glucans content of the matrices was assessed after contact with the drugs. The data suggest that, generally, after contact with echinocandins, the concentration of -1,3 glucans increased. These adjustments in the matrix composition of C. glabrata biofilms and the chemical differences between Csf and Mcf, seem responsible and may determine the effectivity of the drug responses.This study was supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) under the scope of the strategic funding of UID/BIO/04469/2013 unit and COMPETE 2020 [POCI-01–0145-FEDER-006684] and BioTecNorte operation [NORTE-01–0145-FEDER-000004] funded by the European Regional Development Fund under the scope of Norte2020 - Programa Operacional Regional do Norte, Célia F. Rodrigues’ [SFRH/BD/93078/2013] PhD grant and M. Elisa Rodrigues [SFRH/BPD/95401/2013] post-doctoral grant.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Candidaemia and antifungal therapy in a French University Hospital: rough trends over a decade and possible links

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    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an increased prevalence of candidaemia and for high associated mortality in the 1990s led to a number of different recommendations concerning the management of at risk patients as well as an increase in the availability and prescription of new antifungal agents. The aim of this study was to parallel in our hospital candidemia incidence with the nature of prescribed antifungal drugs between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: During this 10-year period we reviewed all cases of candidemia, and collected all the data about annual consumption of prescribed antifungal drugs RESULTS: Our centralised clinical mycology laboratory isolates and identifies all yeasts grown from blood cultures obtained from a 3300 bed teaching hospital. Between 1993 and 2003, 430 blood yeast isolates were identified. Examination of the trends in isolation revealed a clear decrease in number of yeast isolates recovered between 1995–2000, whereas the number of positive blood cultures in 2003 rose to 1993 levels. The relative prevalence of Candida albicans and C. glabrata was similar in 1993 and 2003 in contrast to the period 1995–2000 where an increased prevalence of C. glabrata was observed. When these quantitative and qualitative data were compared to the amount and type of antifungal agents prescribed during the same period (annual mean defined daily dose: 2662741; annual mean cost: 615629 €) a single correlation was found between the decrease in number of yeast isolates, the increased prevalence of C. glabrata and the high level of prescription of fluconazole at prophylactic doses between 1995–2000. CONCLUSION: Between 1993 and 2000, the number of cases of candidemia halved, with an increase of C. glabrata prevalence. These findings were probably linked to the use of Fluconazole prophylaxis. Although it is not possible to make any recommendations from this data the information is nevertheless interesting and may have considerable implications with the introduction of new antifungal drugs

    Statistical analyses of correlation between fluconazole MICs for Candida spp. assessed by standard methods set forth by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (E.Dis. 7.1) and CLSI (M27-A2).

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    The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing recently published a standard for determining the susceptibility of fermentative yeasts to antifungals. From the beginning, the EUCAST and its North American counterpart, the CLSI, decided to work together in order to establish common standards. As part of this exercise, the susceptibility of a set of 475 yeast isolates was tested by both standards. The intraclass correlation coefficient and the equations defining the linear regression between both methods were estimated. Both methods produced very similar results, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.954 (0.945 to 0.962), although linear regression analysis shows that the EUCAST standard resulted in slightly lower MICs. There were only eight isolates showing at least four twofold dilution MIC differences between both standards. After 24 h of incubation, the MICs obtained by the CLSI method were equivalent to those obtained by the EUCAST standard. In summary, both methods produce very similar MICs, indicating that methodology does not pose any obstacle to obtaining uniform standards for antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast

    Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey

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    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported higher rates of antimicrobial resistance among isolates from intensive care units than among isolates from general patient-care areas. The aims of this study were to review the pathogens associated with nosocomial infections in a surgical intensive care unit of a university hospital in Turkey and to summarize rates of antimicrobial resistance in the most common pathogens. The survey was conducted over a period of twelve months in a tertiary-care teaching hospital located in the south-eastern part of Turkey, Gaziantep. A total of 871 clinical specimens from 615 adult patients were collected. From 871 clinical specimens 771 bacterial and fungal isolates were identified. RESULTS: Most commonly isolated microorganisms were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.3%), Candida species (15%) and Staphylococcus aureus (12.9%). Among the Gram-negative microorganisms P. aeruginosa were mostly resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (71.3–98.1%), while Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant in all cases to piperacillin, ceftazidime and ceftriaxone. Isolates of S. aureus were mostly resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, and methicillin (82–95%), whereas coagulase-negative staphylococci were 98.6% resistant to methicillin and in all cases resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. CONCLUSION: In order to reduce the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in ICUs, monitoring and optimization of antimicrobial use in hospitals are strictly recommended. Therefore local resistance surveillance programs are of most value in developing appropriate therapeutic guidelines for specific infections and patient types
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