112 research outputs found

    Trust in Crowds: probabilistic behaviour in anonymity protocols

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    The existing analysis of the Crowds anonymity protocol assumes that a participating member is either ‘honest’ or ‘corrupted’. This paper generalises this analysis so that each member is assumed to maliciously disclose the identity of other nodes with a probability determined by her vulnerability to corruption. Within this model, the trust in a principal is defined to be the probability that she behaves honestly. We investigate the effect of such a probabilistic behaviour on the anonymity of the principals participating in the protocol, and formulate the necessary conditions to achieve ‘probable innocence’. Using these conditions, we propose a generalised Crowds-Trust protocol which uses trust information to achieves ‘probable innocence’ for principals exhibiting probabilistic behaviour

    Fredholm Determinants, Differential Equations and Matrix Models

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    Orthogonal polynomial random matrix models of NxN hermitian matrices lead to Fredholm determinants of integral operators with kernel of the form (phi(x) psi(y) - psi(x) phi(y))/x-y. This paper is concerned with the Fredholm determinants of integral operators having kernel of this form and where the underlying set is a union of open intervals. The emphasis is on the determinants thought of as functions of the end-points of these intervals. We show that these Fredholm determinants with kernels of the general form described above are expressible in terms of solutions of systems of PDE's as long as phi and psi satisfy a certain type of differentiation formula. There is also an exponential variant of this analysis which includes the circular ensembles of NxN unitary matrices.Comment: 34 pages, LaTeX using RevTeX 3.0 macros; last version changes only the abstract and decreases length of typeset versio

    Hawking Temperature in Taub-NUT (A)dS spaces via the Generalized Uncertainty Principle

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    Using the extended forms of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle from string theory and the quantum gravity theory, we drived Hawking temperature of a Taub-Nut-(A)dS black hole. In spite of their distinctive natures such as asymptotically locally flat and breakdown of the area theorem of the horizon for the black holes, we show that the corrections to Hawking temperature by the generalized versions of the the Heisenberg uncertainty principle increases like the Schwarzschild-(A)dS black hole and give the reason why the Taub-Nut-(A)dS metric may have AdS/CFT dual picture.Comment: version published in General Relativity and Gravitatio

    Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole, planar coordinates and dS/CFT

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    We discuss the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black holes in the context of dS/CFT correspondence by using static and planar coordinates. The boundary stress tensor and the mass of the solutions are computed. Also, we investigate how the RG flow is changed for different foliations. The Kastor-Traschen multi-black hole solution is considered as well as AdS counterparts of these configurations. In particular, we find that in planar coordinates the black holes appear like punctures in the dual boundary theory.Comment: 30 pages, 3 eps figures, JHEP style v2: new references added, misprints correcte

    Observational constraints on Horava-Lifshitz cosmology

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    We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), along with requirements of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), to constrain the cosmological scenarios governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We consider both the detailed and non-detailed balance versions of the gravitational sector, and we include the matter and radiation sectors. We conclude that the detailed-balance scenario cannot be ruled out from the observational point of view, however the corresponding likelihood contours impose tight constraints on the involved parameters. The scenario beyond detailed balance is compatible with observational data, and we present the corresponding stringent constraints and contour-plots of the parameters. Although this analysis indicates that Horava-Lifshitz cosmology can be compatible with observations, it does not enlighten the discussion about its possible conceptual and theoretical problems.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, version published in JCA

    The Milky Way Bulge: Observed properties and a comparison to external galaxies

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    The Milky Way bulge offers a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the role that different processes such as dynamical instabilities, hierarchical merging, and dissipational collapse may have played in the history of the Galaxy formation and evolution based on its resolved stellar population properties. Large observation programmes and surveys of the bulge are providing for the first time a look into the global view of the Milky Way bulge that can be compared with the bulges of other galaxies, and be used as a template for detailed comparison with models. The Milky Way has been shown to have a box/peanut (B/P) bulge and recent evidence seems to suggest the presence of an additional spheroidal component. In this review we summarise the global chemical abundances, kinematics and structural properties that allow us to disentangle these multiple components and provide constraints to understand their origin. The investigation of both detailed and global properties of the bulge now provide us with the opportunity to characterise the bulge as observed in models, and to place the mixed component bulge scenario in the general context of external galaxies. When writing this review, we considered the perspectives of researchers working with the Milky Way and researchers working with external galaxies. It is an attempt to approach both communities for a fruitful exchange of ideas.Comment: Review article to appear in "Galactic Bulges", Editors: Laurikainen E., Peletier R., Gadotti D., Springer Publishing. 36 pages, 10 figure

    Probable Innocence and Independent Knowledge

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    International audienceWe analyse the \textsc{Crowds} anonymity protocol under the novel assumption that the attacker has independent knowledge on behavioural patterns of individual users. Under such conditions we study, reformulate and extend Reiter and Rubin's notion of probable innocence, and provide a new formalisation for it based on the concept of protocol vulnerability. Accordingly, we establish new formal relationships between protocol parameters and attackers' knowledge expressing necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure probable innocence

    Clinical spectrum of SIX3-associated mutations in holoprosencephaly: correlation between genotype, phenotype and function

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    BACKGROUND: Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the human forebrain. There are several important HPE mutational target genes, including the transcription factor SIX3, which encodes an early regulator of Shh, Wnt, Bmp and Nodal signalling expressed in the developing forebrain and eyes of all vertebrates. OBJECTIVE: To characterise genetic and clinical findings in patients with SIX3 mutations. METHODS: Patients with HPE and their family members were tested for mutations in HPE-associated genes and the genetic and clinical findings, including those for additional cases found in the literature, were analysed. The results were correlated with a mutation-specific functional assay in zebrafish. RESULTS: In a cohort of patients (n = 800) with HPE, SIX3 mutations were found in 4.7% of probands and additional cases were found through testing of relatives. In total, 138 cases of HPE were identified, 59 of whom had not previously been clinically presented. Mutations in SIX3 result in more severe HPE than in other cases of non-chromosomal, non-syndromic HPE. An over-representation of severe HPE was found in patients whose mutations confer greater loss of function, as measured by the functional zebrafish assay. The gender ratio in this combined set of patients was 1.5:1 (F:M) and maternal inheritance was almost twice as common as paternal. About 14% of SIX3 mutations in probands occur de novo. There is a wide intrafamilial clinical range of features and classical penetrance is estimated to be at least 62%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that SIX3 mutations result in relatively severe HPE and that there is a genotype-phenotype correlation, as shown by functional studies using animal models

    The Physics of Star Cluster Formation and Evolution

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    © 2020 Springer-Verlag. The final publication is available at Springer via https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-020-00689-4.Star clusters form in dense, hierarchically collapsing gas clouds. Bulk kinetic energy is transformed to turbulence with stars forming from cores fed by filaments. In the most compact regions, stellar feedback is least effective in removing the gas and stars may form very efficiently. These are also the regions where, in high-mass clusters, ejecta from some kind of high-mass stars are effectively captured during the formation phase of some of the low mass stars and effectively channeled into the latter to form multiple populations. Star formation epochs in star clusters are generally set by gas flows that determine the abundance of gas in the cluster. We argue that there is likely only one star formation epoch after which clusters remain essentially clear of gas by cluster winds. Collisional dynamics is important in this phase leading to core collapse, expansion and eventual dispersion of every cluster. We review recent developments in the field with a focus on theoretical work.Peer reviewe