8,846 research outputs found

    Ultra-dense phosphorus in germanium delta-doped layers

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    Phosphorus (P) in germanium (Ge) delta-doped layers are fabricated in ultra-high vacuum by adsorption of phosphine molecules onto an atomically flat clean Ge(001) surface followed by thermal incorporation of P into the lattice and epitaxial Ge overgrowth by molecular beam epitaxy. Structural and electrical characterizations show that P atoms are confined, with minimal diffusion, into an ultra-narrow 2-nm-wide layer with an electrically-active sheet carrier concentration of 4x10^13 cm-2 at 4.2 K. These results open up the possibility of ultra-narrow source/drain regions with unprecedented carrier densities for Ge n-channel field effect transistors

    Spin-dependent transport in a quasiballistic quantum wire

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    We describe the transport properties of a 5 μ\mum long one-dimensional (1D) quantum wire. Reduction of conductance plateaux due to the introduction of weakly disorder scattering are observed. In an in-plane magnetic field, we observe spin-splitting of the reduced conductance steps. Our experimental results provide evidence that deviation from conductance quantisation is very small for electrons with spin parallel and is about 1/3 for electrons with spin anti-parallel. Moreover, in a high in-plane magnetic field, a spin-polarised 1D channel shows a plateau-like structure close to 0.3×e2/h0.3 \times e^2/h which strengthens with {\em increasing} temperatures. It is suggested that these results arise from the combination of disorder and the electron-electron interactions in the 1D electron gas.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, latex to be published in Phys. Rev. B (15/3/2000

    Benchmarking high fidelity single-shot readout of semiconductor qubits

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    Determination of qubit initialisation and measurement fidelity is important for the overall performance of a quantum computer. However, the method by which it is calculated in semiconductor qubits varies between experiments. In this paper we present a full theoretical analysis of electronic single-shot readout and describe critical parameters to achieve high fidelity readout. In particular, we derive a model for energy selective state readout based on a charge detector response and examine how to optimise the fidelity by choosing correct experimental parameters. Although we focus on single electron spin readout, the theory presented can be applied to other electronic readout techniques in semiconductors that use a reservoir.Comment: 19 pages, 8 figure

    Spontaneous breaking of time reversal symmetry in strongly interacting two dimensional electron layers in silicon and germanium

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    We report experimental evidence of a remarkable spontaneous time reversal symmetry breaking in two dimensional electron systems formed by atomically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Weak localization corrections to the conductivity and the universal conductance fluctuations were both found to decrease rapidly with decreasing doping in the Si:P and Ge:P δ\delta-layers, suggesting an effect driven by Coulomb interactions. In-plane magnetotransport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping, providing a microscopic mechanism for spontaneous lifting of the time reversal symmetry. Our experiments suggest the emergence of a new many-body quantum state when two dimensional electrons are confined to narrow half-filled impurity bands

    Anomalous spin-dependent behaviour of one-dimensional subbands

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    We report a new electron interaction effect in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wires. Using DC-bias spectroscopy, we show that large and abrupt changes occur to the energies of spin-down (lower energy) states as they populate. The effect is not observed for spin-up energy states. At B=0, interactions have a pronounced effect, in the form of the well-known 0.7 Structure. However, our new results show that interactions strongly affect the energy spectrum at all magnetic fields, from 0 to 16T, not just in the vicinity of the 0.7 Structure.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Single-shot single-gate RF spin readout in silicon

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    For solid-state spin qubits, single-gate RF readout can help minimise the number of gates required for scale-up to many qubits since the readout sensor can integrate into the existing gates required to manipulate the qubits (Veldhorst 2017, Pakkiam 2018). However, a key requirement for a scalable quantum computer is that we must be capable of resolving the qubit state within single-shot, that is, a single measurement (DiVincenzo 2000). Here we demonstrate single-gate, single-shot readout of a singlet-triplet spin state in silicon, with an average readout fidelity of 82.9%82.9\% at a 3.3 kHz3.3~\text{kHz} measurement bandwidth. We use this technique to measure a triplet TT_- to singlet S0S_0 relaxation time of 0.62 ms0.62~\text{ms} in precision donor quantum dots in silicon. We also show that the use of RF readout does not impact the maximum readout time at zero detuning limited by the S0S_0 to TT_- decay, which remained at approximately 2 ms2~\text{ms}. This establishes single-gate sensing as a viable readout method for spin qubits

    Interface-induced heavy-hole/light-hole splitting of acceptors in silicon

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    The energy spectrum of spin-orbit coupled states of individual sub-surface boron acceptor dopants in silicon have been investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at cryogenic temperatures. The spatially resolved tunnel spectra show two resonances which we ascribe to the heavy- and light-hole Kramers doublets. This type of broken degeneracy has recently been argued to be advantageous for the lifetime of acceptor-based qubits [Phys. Rev. B 88 064308 (2013)]. The depth dependent energy splitting between the heavy- and light-hole Kramers doublets is consistent with tight binding calculations, and is in excess of 1 meV for all acceptors within the experimentally accessible depth range (< 2 nm from the surface). These results will aid the development of tunable acceptor-based qubits in silicon with long coherence times and the possibility for electrical manipulation
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