20,790 research outputs found

    Electron-Phonon Interactions for Optical Phonon Modes in Few-Layer Graphene

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    We present a first-principles study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interactions and their contributions to the linewidths for the optical phonon modes at Γ\Gamma and K in one to three-layer graphene. It is found that due to the interlayer coupling and the stacking geometry, the high-frequency optical phonon modes in few-layer graphene couple with different valence and conduction bands, giving rise to different e-ph interaction strengths for these modes. Some of the multilayer optical modes derived from the Γ\Gamma-E2gE_{2g} mode of monolayer graphene exhibit slightly higher frequencies and much reduced linewidths. In addition, the linewidths of K-A1A'_1 related modes in multilayers depend on the stacking pattern and decrease with increasing layer numbers.Comment: 6 pages,5 figures, submitted to PR

    Economics of polysilicon processes

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    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment

    Determining Absorption, Emissivity Reduction, and Local Suppression Coefficients inside Sunspots

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    The power of solar acoustic waves is reduced inside sunspots mainly due to absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression. The coefficients of these power-reduction mechanisms can be determined by comparing time-distance cross-covariances obtained from sunspots and from the quiet Sun. By analyzing 47 active regions observed by SOHO/MDI without using signal filters, we have determined the coefficients of surface absorption, deep absorption, emissivity reduction, and local suppression. The dissipation in the quiet Sun is derived as well. All of the cross-covariances are width corrected to offset the effect of dispersion. We find that absorption is the dominant mechanism of the power deficit in sunspots for short travel distances, but gradually drops to zero at travel distances longer than about 6 degrees. The absorption in sunspot interiors is also significant. The emissivity-reduction coefficient ranges from about 0.44 to 1.00 within the umbra and 0.29 to 0.72 in the sunspot, and accounts for only about 21.5% of the umbra's and 16.5% of the sunspot's total power reduction. Local suppression is nearly constant as a function of travel distance with values of 0.80 and 0.665 for umbrae and whole sunspots respectively, and is the major cause of the power deficit at large travel distances.Comment: 14 pages, 21 Figure