180 research outputs found

    Dynamical aspects of isotopic scaling

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    Investigation of the effect of the dynamical stage of heavy-ion collisions indicates that the increasing width of the initial isospin distributions is reflected by a significant modification of the isoscaling slope for the final isotopic distributions after de-excitation. For narrow initial distributions, the isoscaling slope assumes the limiting value of the two individual initial nuclei while for wide initial isotopic distributions the slope for hot fragments approaches the initial value. The isoscaling slopes for final cold fragments increase due to secondary emissions. The experimentally observed evolution of the isoscaling parameter in multifragmentation of hot quasiprojectiles at Einc_{inc}=50 AMeV, fragmentation of 86^{86}Kr projectiles at Einc_{inc}=25 AMeV and multifragmentation of target spectators at relativistic energies was reproduced by a simulation with the dynamical stage described using the appropriate model (deep inelastic transfer and incomplete fusion at the Fermi energy domain and spectator-participant model at relativistic energies) and the de-excitation stage described with the statistical multifragmentation model. In all cases the isoscaling behavior was reproduced by a proper description of the dynamical stage and no unambiguous signals of the decrease of the symmetry energy coefficient were observed.Comment: LaTeX, 18 pages, 9 figures, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Production of cold fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi-energy domain

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    The reaction mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions at projectile energies around the Fermi energy is investigated with emphasis on the production of fragmentation-like residues. The results of simulations are compared to experimental mass distributions of elements with Z = 21 - 29 observed in the reactions 86Kr+124,112Sn at 25 AMeV. The model of incomplete fusion is modified and a component of excitation energy of the cold fragment dependent on isospin asymmetry is introduced. The modifications in the model of incomplete fusion appear consistent with both overall model framework and available experimental data. A prediction is provided for the production of very neutron-rich nuclei using a secondary beam of 132Sn where e.g. the reaction 132Sn+238U at 28 AMeV appears as a possible alternative to the use of fragmentation reactions at higher energies.Comment: LaTeX, 15 pages, 5 figures, minor modifications, accepted for publication in Nuclear Physics

    Isoscaling Studies of Fission - a Sensitive Probe into the Dynamics of Scission

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    The fragment yield ratios were investigated in the fission of 238,233U targets induced by 14 MeV neutrons. The isoscaling behavior was typically observed for the isotopic chains of fragments ranging from the proton-rich to the most neutron-rich ones. The observed high sensitivity of neutron-rich heavy fragments to the target neutron content suggests fission as a source of neutron-rich heavy nuclei for present and future rare ion beam facilities, allowing studies of nuclear properties towards the neutron drip-line and investigations of the conditions for nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei. The breakdowns of the isoscaling behavior around N=62 and N=80 manifest the effect of two shell closures on the dynamics of scission. The shell closure around N=64 can be explained by the deformed shell. The investigation of isoscaling in the spontaneous fission of 248,244Cm further supports such conclusion. The Z-dependence of the isoscaling parameter exhibits a structure which can be possibly related to details of scission dynamics. The fission isoscaling studies can be a suitable tool for the investigation of possible new pathways to synthesize still heavier nuclei.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, RevTex, final version, to appear in Phys. Rev. C as a regular articl

    Studies of reaction dynamics in the Fermi energy domain

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    An overview of recent results on reaction dynamics in the energy region 20 - 50 A.MeV is given. The results of the study of projectile multifragmentation using the detector array FAUST are presented. Reaction mechanism is determined and thermodynamical properties of the hot quasiprojectile are investigated. Preliminary results on fragment isospin asymmetry obtained using the 4Ď€\pi detector array NIMROD are given. Procedure for selecting centrality in two-dimensional multiplicity histograms is described. Possibility to extract thermodynamical temperature from systematics of isotope ratios is investigated. Reaction mechanism leading to production of hot sources is discussed. Furthermore, the possibilities for production of rare isotopes are discussed and recent experimental results obtained using recoil separator MARS are presented.Comment: 18 pages, 11 figures, contribution to proceedings of the conference DANF'2001, Casta-Papiernicka, Slovakia published by World Scientifi

    Production mechanism of hot nuclei in violent collisions in the Fermi energy domain

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    A production mechanism of highly excited nuclei formed in violent collisions in the Fermi energy domain is investigated. The collision of two nuclei is decomposed into several stages which are treated separately. Simplified exciton concept is used for the description of pre-equilibrium emission. A modified spectator-participant scenario is used where motion along classical Coulomb trajectories is assumed. The participant and one of the spectator zones undergo incomplete fusion. Excitation energies of both cold and hot fragment are determined. Results of the calculation are compared to recent experimental data in the Fermi energy domain. Data on hot projectile-like, mid-velocity and fusion-like sources are described consistently. Geometric aspects of pre-equilibrium emission are revealed. Explanations to previously unexplained experimental phenomena are given. Energy deposited into non-thermal degrees of freedom is estimated.Comment: To appear in Nuclear Physics A, 27 pages, 19 figures, LaTe

    Tracing the evolution of the symmetry energy of hot nuclear fragments from the compound nucleus towards multifragmentation

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    The evolution of the symmetry energy coefficient of the binding energy of hot fragments with increasing excitation is explored in multifragmentation processes following heavy-ion collisions below the Fermi energy. In this work, high-resolution mass spectrometric data on isotopic distributions of projectile-like fragments from collisions of 25 MeV/nucleon 86Kr and 64Ni beams on heavy neutron-rich targets are systematically compared to calculations involving the Statistical Multifragmentation Model. The study reveals a gradual decrease of the symmetry energy coefficient from 25 MeV at the compound nucleus regime (E*/A < 2 MeV) towards 15 MeV in the bulk multifragmentation regime (E*/A > 4 MeV). The ensuing isotopic distributions of the hot fragments are found to be very wide and extend towards the neutron drip-line. These findings may have important implications to the composition and evolution of hot astrophysical environments, such as core-collapse supernova.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Heavy Residue Isoscaling as a Probe of the Process of N/Z Equilibration

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    The isotopic and isobaric scaling behavior of the yield ratios of heavy projectile residues from the collisions of 25 MeV/nucleon 86Kr projectiles on 124Sn and 112Sn targets is investigated and shown to provide information on the process of N/Z equilibration occurring between the projectile and the target. The logarithmic slopes α\alpha and β′\beta^{'} of the residue yield ratios with respect to residue neutron number N and neutron excess N--Z are obtained as a function of the atomic number Z and mass number A, respectively, whereas excitation energies are deduced from velocities. The relation of the isoscaling parameters α\alpha and β′\beta^{'} with the N/Z of the primary (excited) projectile fragments is employed to gain access to the degree of N/Z equilibration prior to fragmentation as a function of excitation energy. A monotonic relation between the N/Z difference of fragmenting quasiprojectiles and their excitation energy is obtained indicating that N/Z equilibrium is approached at the highest observed excitation energies. Simulations with a deep-inelastic transfer model are in overall agreement with the isoscaling conclusions. The present residue isoscaling approach to N/Z equilibration offers an attractive tool of isospin and reaction dynamics studies in collisions involving beams of stable or rare isotopes.Comment: 15 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Phys. Lett.
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