187 research outputs found

### Transient currents and universal timescales for a fully time-dependent quantum dot in the Kondo regime

Using the time-dependent non-crossing approximation, we calculate the
transient response of the current through a quantum dot subject to a finite
bias when the dot level is moved suddenly into a regime where the Kondo effect
is present. After an initial small but rapid response, the time-dependent
conductance is a universal function of the temperature, bias, and inverse time,
all expressed in units of the Kondo temperature. Two timescales emerge: the
first is the time to reach a quasi-metastable point where the Kondo resonance
is formed as a broad structure of half-width of the order of the bias; the
second is the longer time required for the narrower split peak structure to
emerge from the previous structure and to become fully formed. The first time
can be measured by the gross rise time of the conductance, which does not
substantially change later while the split peaks are forming. The second time
characterizes the decay rate of the small split Kondo peak (SKP) oscillations
in the conductance, which may provide a method of experimental access to it.
This latter timescale is accessible via linear response from the steady
stateand appears to be related to the scale identified in that manner [A.
Rosch, J. Kroha, and P. Wolfle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 156802 (2001)].Comment: Revtex with 15 eps figures. Compiles to 11 page

### Spin waves in ultrathin ferromagnetic overlayers

The influence of a non-magnetic metallic substrate on the spin wave
excitations in ultrathin ferromagnetic overlayers is investigated for different
crystalline orientations. We show that spin wave dumping in these systems occur
due to the tunneling of holes from the substrate into the overlayer, and that
the spin wave energies may be considerably affected by the exchange coupling
mediated by the substrate.Comment: RevTeX 4, 7 pages, 5 figures; submitted to Phys. Rev.

### On the interpretation of spin-polarized electron energy loss spectra

We study the origin of the structure in the spin-polarized electron energy
loss spectroscopy (SPEELS) spectra of ferromagnetic crystals. Our study is
based on a 3d tight-binding Fe model, with constant onsite Coulomb repulsion U
between electrons of opposite spin. We find it is not the total density of
Stoner states as a function of energy loss which determines the response of the
system in the Stoner region, as usually thought, but the densities of Stoner
states for only a few interband transitions. Which transitions are important
depends ultimately on how strongly umklapp processes couple the corresponding
bands. This allows us to show, in particular, that the Stoner peak in SPEELS
spectra does not necessarily indicate the value of the exchange splitting
energy. Thus, the common assumption that this peak allows us to estimate the
magnetic moment through its correlation with exchange splitting should be
reconsidered, both in bulk and surface studies. Furthermore, we are able to
show that the above mechanism is one of the main causes for the typical
broadness of experimental spectra. Finally, our model predicts that optical
spin waves should be excited in SPEELS experiments.Comment: 11 pages, 7 eps figures, REVTeX fil

### An Inverse-Problem Approach to Designing Photonic Crystals for Cavity QED Experiments

Photonic band gap (PBG) materials are attractive for cavity QED experiments
because they provide extremely small mode volumes and are monolithic,
integratable structures. As such, PBG cavities are a promising alternative to
Fabry-Perot resonators. However, the cavity requirements imposed by QED
experiments, such as the need for high Q (low cavity damping) and small mode
volumes, present significant design challenges for photonic band gap materials.
Here, we pose the PBG design problem as a mathematical inversion and provide an
analytical solution for a two-dimensional crystal. We then address a planar (2D
crystal with finite thickness) structure using numerical techniques.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, preprint available from
http://minty.caltech.edu/MabuchiLa

### Degeneracy analysis for a super cell of a photonic crystal and its application to the creation of band gaps

A method is introduced to analyze the degeneracy properties of the band
structure of a photonic crystal making use of the super cells. The band
structure associated with a super cell of a photonic crystal has degeneracies
at the edge of the Brillouin zone if the photonic crystal has some kind of
point group symmetry. Both E-polarization and H-polarization cases have the
same degeneracies for a 2-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal. Two theorems are
given and proved. These degeneracies can be lifted to create photonic band gaps
by changing the transform matrix between the super cell and the smallest unit
cell. The existence of the photonic band gaps for many known 2D photonic
crystals is explained through the degeneracy analysis.Comment: 19 pages, revtex4, 14 figures, p

### Simple model for scanning tunneling spectroscopy of noble metal surfaces with adsorbed Kondo impurities

A simple model is introduced to describe conductance measurements between a
scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and a noble metal surface with adsorbed
transition metal atoms which display the Kondo effect. The model assumes a
realistic parameterization of the potential created by the surface and a
d3z2-r2 orbital for the description of the adsorbate. Fano lineshapes
associated with the Kondo resonance are found to be sensitive to details of the
adsorbate-substrate interaction. For instance, bringing the adsorbate closer to
the surface leads to more asymmetric lineshapes while their dependence on the
tip distance is weak. We find that it is important to use a realistic surface
potential, to properly include the tunnelling matrix elements to the tip and to
use substrate states which are orthogonal to the adsorbate and tip states. An
application of our model to Co adsorbed on Cu explains the difference in the
lineshapes observed between Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces.Comment: 11 pages, 8 eps figure

### On the magnetic stability at the surface in strongly correlated electron systems

The stability of ferromagnetism at the surface at finite temperatures is
investigated within the strongly correlated Hubbard model on a semi-infinite
lattice. Due to the reduced surface coordination number the effective Coulomb
correlation is enhanced at the surface compared to the bulk. Therefore, within
the well-known Stoner-picture of band ferromagnetism one would expect the
magnetic stability at the surface to be enhanced as well. However, by taking
electron correlations into account well beyond the Hartree-Fock (Stoner) level
we find the opposite behavior: As a function of temperature the magnetization
of the surface layer decreases faster than in the bulk. By varying the hopping
integral within the surface layer this behavior becomes even more pronounced. A
reduced hopping integral at the surface tends to destabilize surface
ferromagnetism whereas the magnetic stability gets enhanced by an increased
hopping integral. This behavior represents a pure correlation effect and can be
understood in terms of general arguments which are based on exact results in
the limit of strong Coulomb interaction.Comment: 6 pages, RevTeX, 4 eps figures, accepted (Phys. Rev. B), for related
work and info see http://orion.physik.hu-berlin.d

### STM conductance of Kondo impurities on open and structured surfaces

We study the scanning tunneling microscopy response for magnetic atoms on
open and structured surfaces using Wilson's renormalization group. We observe
Fano resonances associated with Kondo resonances and interference effects. For
a magnetic atom in a quantum corral coupled to the confined surface states, and
experimentally relevant parameters, we observe a large confinement induced
effect not present in the experiments. These results suggest that the Kondo
screening is dominated by the bulk electrons rather than the surface ones.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

### Interaction between Kondo impurities in a quantum corral

We calculate the spectral densities for two impurities inside an elliptical
quantum corral using exact diagonalization in the relevant Hilbert subspace and
embedding into the rest of the system. For one impurity, the space and energy
dependence of the change in differential conductance $\Delta = dI/dV$ observed
in the quantum mirage experiment is reproduced. In presence of another
impurity, $\Delta = dI/dV$ is very sensitive to the hybridization between
impurity and bulk. The impurities are correlated ferromagnetically between
them. A hopping $\gtrsim 0.15$ eV between impurities destroy the Kondo
resonance.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

### Predicting a Gapless Spin-1 Neutral Collective Mode branch for Graphite

Using the standard tight binding model of 2d graphite with short range
electron repulsion, we find a gapless spin-1, neutral collective mode branch
{\em below the particle-hole continuum} with energy vanishing linearly with
momenta at the $\Gamma$ and $K$ points in the BZ. This spin-1 mode has a wide
energy dispersion, 0 to $\sim 2 eV$ and is not Landau damped. The `Dirac cone
spectrum' of electrons at the chemical potential of graphite generates our
collective mode; so we call this `spin-1 zero sound' of the `Dirac sea'.
Epithermal neutron scattering experiments, where graphite single crystals are
often used as analyzers (an opportunity for `self-analysis'!), and spin
polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy (SPEELS) can be used to confirm and
study our collective mode.Comment: 4 pages of LaTex file, 3 eps figure file

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