187 research outputs found

    Transient currents and universal timescales for a fully time-dependent quantum dot in the Kondo regime

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    Using the time-dependent non-crossing approximation, we calculate the transient response of the current through a quantum dot subject to a finite bias when the dot level is moved suddenly into a regime where the Kondo effect is present. After an initial small but rapid response, the time-dependent conductance is a universal function of the temperature, bias, and inverse time, all expressed in units of the Kondo temperature. Two timescales emerge: the first is the time to reach a quasi-metastable point where the Kondo resonance is formed as a broad structure of half-width of the order of the bias; the second is the longer time required for the narrower split peak structure to emerge from the previous structure and to become fully formed. The first time can be measured by the gross rise time of the conductance, which does not substantially change later while the split peaks are forming. The second time characterizes the decay rate of the small split Kondo peak (SKP) oscillations in the conductance, which may provide a method of experimental access to it. This latter timescale is accessible via linear response from the steady stateand appears to be related to the scale identified in that manner [A. Rosch, J. Kroha, and P. Wolfle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 156802 (2001)].Comment: Revtex with 15 eps figures. Compiles to 11 page

    Spin waves in ultrathin ferromagnetic overlayers

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    The influence of a non-magnetic metallic substrate on the spin wave excitations in ultrathin ferromagnetic overlayers is investigated for different crystalline orientations. We show that spin wave dumping in these systems occur due to the tunneling of holes from the substrate into the overlayer, and that the spin wave energies may be considerably affected by the exchange coupling mediated by the substrate.Comment: RevTeX 4, 7 pages, 5 figures; submitted to Phys. Rev.

    On the interpretation of spin-polarized electron energy loss spectra

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    We study the origin of the structure in the spin-polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy (SPEELS) spectra of ferromagnetic crystals. Our study is based on a 3d tight-binding Fe model, with constant onsite Coulomb repulsion U between electrons of opposite spin. We find it is not the total density of Stoner states as a function of energy loss which determines the response of the system in the Stoner region, as usually thought, but the densities of Stoner states for only a few interband transitions. Which transitions are important depends ultimately on how strongly umklapp processes couple the corresponding bands. This allows us to show, in particular, that the Stoner peak in SPEELS spectra does not necessarily indicate the value of the exchange splitting energy. Thus, the common assumption that this peak allows us to estimate the magnetic moment through its correlation with exchange splitting should be reconsidered, both in bulk and surface studies. Furthermore, we are able to show that the above mechanism is one of the main causes for the typical broadness of experimental spectra. Finally, our model predicts that optical spin waves should be excited in SPEELS experiments.Comment: 11 pages, 7 eps figures, REVTeX fil

    An Inverse-Problem Approach to Designing Photonic Crystals for Cavity QED Experiments

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    Photonic band gap (PBG) materials are attractive for cavity QED experiments because they provide extremely small mode volumes and are monolithic, integratable structures. As such, PBG cavities are a promising alternative to Fabry-Perot resonators. However, the cavity requirements imposed by QED experiments, such as the need for high Q (low cavity damping) and small mode volumes, present significant design challenges for photonic band gap materials. Here, we pose the PBG design problem as a mathematical inversion and provide an analytical solution for a two-dimensional crystal. We then address a planar (2D crystal with finite thickness) structure using numerical techniques.Comment: 12 pages, 8 figures, preprint available from http://minty.caltech.edu/MabuchiLa

    Degeneracy analysis for a super cell of a photonic crystal and its application to the creation of band gaps

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    A method is introduced to analyze the degeneracy properties of the band structure of a photonic crystal making use of the super cells. The band structure associated with a super cell of a photonic crystal has degeneracies at the edge of the Brillouin zone if the photonic crystal has some kind of point group symmetry. Both E-polarization and H-polarization cases have the same degeneracies for a 2-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal. Two theorems are given and proved. These degeneracies can be lifted to create photonic band gaps by changing the transform matrix between the super cell and the smallest unit cell. The existence of the photonic band gaps for many known 2D photonic crystals is explained through the degeneracy analysis.Comment: 19 pages, revtex4, 14 figures, p

    Simple model for scanning tunneling spectroscopy of noble metal surfaces with adsorbed Kondo impurities

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    A simple model is introduced to describe conductance measurements between a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and a noble metal surface with adsorbed transition metal atoms which display the Kondo effect. The model assumes a realistic parameterization of the potential created by the surface and a d3z2-r2 orbital for the description of the adsorbate. Fano lineshapes associated with the Kondo resonance are found to be sensitive to details of the adsorbate-substrate interaction. For instance, bringing the adsorbate closer to the surface leads to more asymmetric lineshapes while their dependence on the tip distance is weak. We find that it is important to use a realistic surface potential, to properly include the tunnelling matrix elements to the tip and to use substrate states which are orthogonal to the adsorbate and tip states. An application of our model to Co adsorbed on Cu explains the difference in the lineshapes observed between Cu(100) and Cu(111) surfaces.Comment: 11 pages, 8 eps figure

    On the magnetic stability at the surface in strongly correlated electron systems

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    The stability of ferromagnetism at the surface at finite temperatures is investigated within the strongly correlated Hubbard model on a semi-infinite lattice. Due to the reduced surface coordination number the effective Coulomb correlation is enhanced at the surface compared to the bulk. Therefore, within the well-known Stoner-picture of band ferromagnetism one would expect the magnetic stability at the surface to be enhanced as well. However, by taking electron correlations into account well beyond the Hartree-Fock (Stoner) level we find the opposite behavior: As a function of temperature the magnetization of the surface layer decreases faster than in the bulk. By varying the hopping integral within the surface layer this behavior becomes even more pronounced. A reduced hopping integral at the surface tends to destabilize surface ferromagnetism whereas the magnetic stability gets enhanced by an increased hopping integral. This behavior represents a pure correlation effect and can be understood in terms of general arguments which are based on exact results in the limit of strong Coulomb interaction.Comment: 6 pages, RevTeX, 4 eps figures, accepted (Phys. Rev. B), for related work and info see http://orion.physik.hu-berlin.d

    STM conductance of Kondo impurities on open and structured surfaces

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    We study the scanning tunneling microscopy response for magnetic atoms on open and structured surfaces using Wilson's renormalization group. We observe Fano resonances associated with Kondo resonances and interference effects. For a magnetic atom in a quantum corral coupled to the confined surface states, and experimentally relevant parameters, we observe a large confinement induced effect not present in the experiments. These results suggest that the Kondo screening is dominated by the bulk electrons rather than the surface ones.Comment: 6 pages, 6 figure

    Interaction between Kondo impurities in a quantum corral

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    We calculate the spectral densities for two impurities inside an elliptical quantum corral using exact diagonalization in the relevant Hilbert subspace and embedding into the rest of the system. For one impurity, the space and energy dependence of the change in differential conductance Δ=dI/dV\Delta = dI/dV observed in the quantum mirage experiment is reproduced. In presence of another impurity, Δ=dI/dV\Delta = dI/dV is very sensitive to the hybridization between impurity and bulk. The impurities are correlated ferromagnetically between them. A hopping 0.15\gtrsim 0.15 eV between impurities destroy the Kondo resonance.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Predicting a Gapless Spin-1 Neutral Collective Mode branch for Graphite

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    Using the standard tight binding model of 2d graphite with short range electron repulsion, we find a gapless spin-1, neutral collective mode branch {\em below the particle-hole continuum} with energy vanishing linearly with momenta at the Γ\Gamma and KK points in the BZ. This spin-1 mode has a wide energy dispersion, 0 to 2eV\sim 2 eV and is not Landau damped. The `Dirac cone spectrum' of electrons at the chemical potential of graphite generates our collective mode; so we call this `spin-1 zero sound' of the `Dirac sea'. Epithermal neutron scattering experiments, where graphite single crystals are often used as analyzers (an opportunity for `self-analysis'!), and spin polarized electron energy loss spectroscopy (SPEELS) can be used to confirm and study our collective mode.Comment: 4 pages of LaTex file, 3 eps figure file
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