20 research outputs found

    Characteristics of Competitors in Natural Survivals

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    Title: Characteristics ofcompetitors in natural survivals Aim: This graduation paper brings a comprehensive overview about the sport branch "natural survival", its organization, structure and race character. The main aim is to :find the characteristics of a group of competitors, their preparation, equipment, way of living and specializations. Method: Research material for our graduation paper has been collected through: Results: Quantitative data collection - a questionnaire. Document analysis, analysis of written materials and websites - qualitative content analysis. Preparation ofcompetitors for these races is not speci:fic. Race attractiveness decides the most about the competitors' participation in individua! races, and race duration decides the least. It is possible to include these races for testing skills, abilities and team cooperation for common sports people with the doser relation to outdoor sports. Comparison of number of competitors in the last years has confinned that the number ofcompetitors has settled down. A new sport branch "natural survival" has been formed. Keywords: Natural survival, sociological research, competitors' preparation and equipment, communication. Strana

    Additional file 14: Figure S4. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Body mass association with ω (dN/dS). Avian cladogram showing from CoEvol, the labels are the estimated ω (minimum maximum) for each branch on top and the estimated weight (minimum maximum). (DOC 423 kb

    Additional file 16: Table S12. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Covariance between dS, ω (dN/dS), gc content, and the three body mass measures (minimum, maximum and average) in 39 mammalian genomes using gene-based tree. The upper triangle shows the values obtained for all mammals and the lower triangle excluding bats. Each cell represent the covariance values and posterior probability are the bracketed values, posterior probability (** - < = 0.025 or > =0.975; * - < =0.05 or > =0.95) are highlighted in bold for the statistically significant correlations. (DOC 35 kb

    Additional file 15: Table S11. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Covariance between dS, ω (dN/dS), gc content, and the three body mass measures (minimum, maximum and average) in 45 bird genomes using gene-based tree. The upper triangle shows the values obtained for all birds and the lower triangle excluding flightless birds. Each cell represent the covariance values and posterior probability are the bracketed values, posterior probability (** - < = 0.025 or > =0.975; * - < =0.05 or > =0.95) are highlighted in bold for the statistically significant correlations. (DOC 35 kb

    Additional file 4: Table S2. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Positively selected sites of bone-associated genes in Mammalian dataset after multiple testing correction. The alignment length is on Amino acids (aa). Gene in bold are positively selected under the comparison M2a vs M1a. Q-value estimations for multiple testing are represented as positive selected (1) and negative selected (0). (DOC 88 kb

    Direct Imaging of 3D Atomic-Scale Dopant-Defect Clustering Processes in Ion-Implanted Silicon

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    The fabrication of nanoscale semiconductor devices for use in future electronics, energy, and health is among others based on the precise placement of dopant atoms into the crystal lattice of semiconductors and their concurrent or subsequent electrical activation. Dopants are built into the lattice by fabrication processes like ion implantation, plasma-based doping, and thermal annealing. Throughout the fabrication processes fundamental phenomena like dopant diffusion, activation, and clustering occur concurrently with damaging and subsequently recovering the crystal lattice. These processes are described by atomic-scale mechanisms of ion–host atom interaction and have an immense impact on the electrical performance of the resulting devices. Insight in their fundamental nature is of utmost importance for optimizing the performance of nanoscale technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate direct three-dimensional imaging of boron clusters and atoms in crystal defects using field ion microscopy. Our approach allows for the first time the complete characterization of the size and crystallographic orientation of boron-decorated crystal defects. This new method opens a path to image a wide variety of dopant-cluster forms and hence to study the formation and dissolution of boron clusters in silicon on the atomic scale

    Direct Imaging of 3D Atomic-Scale Dopant-Defect Clustering Processes in Ion-Implanted Silicon

    No full text
    The fabrication of nanoscale semiconductor devices for use in future electronics, energy, and health is among others based on the precise placement of dopant atoms into the crystal lattice of semiconductors and their concurrent or subsequent electrical activation. Dopants are built into the lattice by fabrication processes like ion implantation, plasma-based doping, and thermal annealing. Throughout the fabrication processes fundamental phenomena like dopant diffusion, activation, and clustering occur concurrently with damaging and subsequently recovering the crystal lattice. These processes are described by atomic-scale mechanisms of ion–host atom interaction and have an immense impact on the electrical performance of the resulting devices. Insight in their fundamental nature is of utmost importance for optimizing the performance of nanoscale technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate direct three-dimensional imaging of boron clusters and atoms in crystal defects using field ion microscopy. Our approach allows for the first time the complete characterization of the size and crystallographic orientation of boron-decorated crystal defects. This new method opens a path to image a wide variety of dopant-cluster forms and hence to study the formation and dissolution of boron clusters in silicon on the atomic scale

    Additional file 19: Table S13. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Estimation of dN and dS for each branch under Model 0. For each branch, average of dN and dS and the corresponding standard deviation. (DOC 165 kb

    Additional file 1: Figure S1. of Bone-associated gene evolution and the origin of flight in birds

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    Skeletal adaptations to flight in bats. Skeleton of Large flying fox (adapted from Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0)) and the key features observed in bats skeleton system. The typical bone structure of long bones is highlighted in the light blue box (adapted from Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported (CC BY-SA 3.0)). (DOC 331 kb
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