6,287 research outputs found

    Cultural and biological evolutionary processes: gene-culture disequilibrium.

    Full text link

    Measurement of Dielectric Suppression of Bremsstrahlung

    Full text link
    In 1953, Ter-Mikaelian predicted that the bremsstrahlung of low energy photons in a medium is suppressed because of interactions between the produced photon and the electrons in the medium. This suppression occurs because the emission takes place over on a long distance scale, allowing for destructive interference between different instantaneous photon emission amplitudes. We present here measurements of bremsstrahlung cross sections of 200 keV to 20 MeV photons produced by 8 and 25 GeV electrons in carbon and gold targets. Our data shows that dielectric suppression occurs at the predicted level, reducing the cross section up to 75 percent in our data.Comment: 11 pages, format is postscript file, gzip-ed, uuencode-e

    Inference of population splits and mixtures from genome-wide allele frequency data

    Full text link
    Many aspects of the historical relationships between populations in a species are reflected in genetic data. Inferring these relationships from genetic data, however, remains a challenging task. In this paper, we present a statistical model for inferring the patterns of population splits and mixtures in multiple populations. In this model, the sampled populations in a species are related to their common ancestor through a graph of ancestral populations. Using genome-wide allele frequency data and a Gaussian approximation to genetic drift, we infer the structure of this graph. We applied this method to a set of 55 human populations and a set of 82 dog breeds and wild canids. In both species, we show that a simple bifurcating tree does not fully describe the data; in contrast, we infer many migration events. While some of the migration events that we find have been detected previously, many have not. For example, in the human data we infer that Cambodians trace approximately 16% of their ancestry to a population ancestral to other extant East Asian populations. In the dog data, we infer that both the boxer and basenji trace a considerable fraction of their ancestry (9% and 25%, respectively) to wolves subsequent to domestication, and that East Asian toy breeds (the Shih Tzu and the Pekingese) result from admixture between modern toy breeds and "ancient" Asian breeds. Software implementing the model described here, called TreeMix, is available at http://treemix.googlecode.comComment: 28 pages, 6 figures in main text. Attached supplement is 22 pages, 15 figures. This is an updated version of the preprint available at http://precedings.nature.com/documents/6956/version/

    In-depth analysis of the Naming Game dynamics: the homogeneous mixing case

    Get PDF
    Language emergence and evolution has recently gained growing attention through multi-agent models and mathematical frameworks to study their behavior. Here we investigate further the Naming Game, a model able to account for the emergence of a shared vocabulary of form-meaning associations through social/cultural learning. Due to the simplicity of both the structure of the agents and their interaction rules, the dynamics of this model can be analyzed in great detail using numerical simulations and analytical arguments. This paper first reviews some existing results and then presents a new overall understanding.Comment: 30 pages, 19 figures (few in reduced definition). In press in IJMP

    Bounded fitness landscapes and the evolution of the linguistic diversity

    Full text link
    A simple spatial computer simulation model was recently introduced to study the evolution of the linguistic diversity. The model considers processes of selective geographic colonization, linguistic anomalous diffusion and mutation. In the approach, we ascribe to each language a fitness function which depends on the number of people that speak that language. Here we extend the aforementioned model to examine the role of saturation of the fitness on the language dynamics. We found that the dependence of the linguistic diversity on the area after colonization displays a power law regime with a nontrivial exponent in very good agreement with the measured exponent associated with the actual distribution of languages on the Earth.Comment: 10 pages, 3 figure

    Statistical properties of genealogical trees

    Get PDF
    We analyse the statistical properties of genealogical trees in a neutral model of a closed population with sexual reproduction and non-overlapping generations. By reconstructing the genealogy of an individual from the population evolution, we measure the distribution of ancestors appearing more than once in a given tree. After a transient time, the probability of repetition follows, up to a rescaling, a stationary distribution which we calculate both numerically and analytically. This distribution exhibits a universal shape with a non-trivial power law which can be understood by an exact, though simple, renormalization calculation. Some real data on human genealogy illustrate the problem, which is relevant to the study of the real degree of diversity in closed interbreeding communities.Comment: Accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Let

    Bremsstrahlung Suppression due to the LPM and Dielectric Effects in a Variety of Materials

    Get PDF
    The cross section for bremsstrahlung from highly relativistic particles is suppressed due to interference caused by multiple scattering in dense media, and due to photon interactions with the electrons in all materials. We present here a detailed study of bremsstrahlung production of 200 keV to 500 MeV photons from 8 and 25 GeV electrons traversing a variety of target materials. For most targets, we observe the expected suppressions to a good accuracy. We observe that finite thickness effects are important for thin targets.Comment: 52 pages, 13 figures (incorporated in the revtex LaTeX file

    An Unbiased Estimator of Gene Diversity in Samples Containing Related Individuals

    Get PDF
    Gene diversity is sometimes estimated from samples that contain inbred or related individuals. If inbred or related individuals are included in a sample, then the standard estimator for gene diversity produces a downward bias caused by an inflation of the variance of estimated allele frequencies. We develop an unbiased estimator for gene diversity that relies on kinship coefficients for pairs of individuals with known relationship and that reduces to the standard estimator when all individuals are noninbred and unrelated. Applying our estimator to data simulated based on allele frequencies observed for microsatellite loci in human populations, we find that the new estimator performs favorably compared with the standard estimator in terms of bias and similarly in terms of mean squared error. For human population-genetic data, we find that a close linear relationship previously seen between gene diversity and distance from East Africa is preserved when adjusting for the inclusion of close relatives

    Diversity, competition, extinction: the ecophysics of language change

    Get PDF
    As early indicated by Charles Darwin, languages behave and change very much like living species. They display high diversity, differentiate in space and time, emerge and disappear. A large body of literature has explored the role of information exchanges and communicative constraints in groups of agents under selective scenarios. These models have been very helpful in providing a rationale on how complex forms of communication emerge under evolutionary pressures. However, other patterns of large-scale organization can be described using mathematical methods ignoring communicative traits. These approaches consider shorter time scales and have been developed by exploiting both theoretical ecology and statistical physics methods. The models are reviewed here and include extinction, invasion, origination, spatial organization, coexistence and diversity as key concepts and are very simple in their defining rules. Such simplicity is used in order to catch the most fundamental laws of organization and those universal ingredients responsible for qualitative traits. The similarities between observed and predicted patterns indicate that an ecological theory of language is emerging, supporting (on a quantitative basis) its ecological nature, although key differences are also present. Here we critically review some recent advances lying and outline their implications and limitations as well as open problems for future research.Comment: 17 Pages. A review on current models from statistical Physics and Theoretical Ecology applied to study language dynamic
    • …
    corecore