78 research outputs found

    Light-induced scattering and energy transfer between orthogonally-polarized waves

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    We present a detailed experimental investigation on polarization-isotropic and polarization-anisotropic holographic scattering in lithium niobate crystal doped with iron when recording parasitic gratings with an ordinary polarized pump beam. The kinetics of both types of scattering during the whole process of recording is studied. Holographic scattering is presented as a simple technique to monitor the energy transfer between beams of different polarization. Moreover, the spectral and the angular dependence of the transmitted intensity of the crystal during the reconstruction of the auto-generated parasitic gratings are measured.Comment: 10 pages and 5 figure

    Neutron optical beam splitter from holographically structured nanoparticle-polymer composites

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    We report a breakthrough in the search for versatile diffractive elements for cold neutrons. Nanoparticles are spatially arranged by holographical means in a photopolymer. These grating structures show remarkably efficient diffraction of cold neutrons up to about 50% for effective thicknesses of only 200 micron. They open up a profound perspective for next generation neutron-optical devices with the capability to tune or modulate the neutron diffraction efficiency.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Diffraction of slow neutrons by holographic SiO_2 nanoparticle-polymer composite gratings

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    Diffraction experiments with holographic gratings recorded in SiO2_2 nanoparticle-polymer composites have been carried out with slow neutrons. The influence of parameters such as nanoparticle concentration, grating thickness and grating spacing on the neutron-optical properties of such materials has been tested. Decay of the grating structure along the sample depth due to disturbance of the recording process becomes an issue at grating thicknesses of about 100 microns and larger. This limits the achievable diffraction efficiency for neutrons. As a solution to this problem, the Pendell\"{o}sung interference effect in holographic gratings has been exploited to reach a diffraction efficiency of 83% for very cold neutrons.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev.

    A resource-based view and dynamic capabilities approach in the context of a region’s international attractiveness: The recent case of Western Australia

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    This exploratory study proposes a framework based on the resource view theory and the dynamic capabilities approach to further the understanding of a region’s attractiveness, particularly from an international perspective. The case of Western Australia is examined through in-depth, face-to-face interviews with nine country consuls experienced in international trade. The findings revealed significant ways in which Western Australia could enhance its future commercial appeal. The findings revealed the value of synergies between this state and other countries, particularly exchanging expertise, transferring knowledge, or exporting know-how, education, both university and industry-focused, research and development and expertise. These forms of regional attractiveness emphasise the strategic role of industry resources and dynamic capabilities, thus, underscoring the usefulness and applicability of the proposed framework. While the state’s mineral exports will continue to drive its economy, harnessing its potential in other areas is crucial to adapt to changing business environments and to build sustained competitive advantage. © 2018, The Author(s) 2018

    An international collaborative evaluation of central serous chorioretinopathy: different therapeutic approaches and review of literature. The European Vitreoretinal Society central serous chorioretinopathy study

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    Purpose: To study and compare the efficacy of different therapeutic options for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR). Methods: This is a nonrandomized, international multicentre study on 1719 patients (1861 eyes) diagnosed with CSCR, from 63 centres (24 countries). Reported data included different methods of treatment and both results of diagnostic examinations [fluorescein angiography and/or optical coherent tomography (OCT)] and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after therapy. The duration of observation had a mean of 11 months but was extended in a minority of cases up to 7 years. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the different therapeutic options of CSCR in terms of both visual (BCVA) and anatomic (OCT) improvement. Results: One thousand seven hundred nineteen patients (1861 eyes) diagnosed with CSCR were included. Treatments performed were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory eye drops, laser photocoagulation, micropulse diode laser photocoagulation, photodynamic therapy (PDT; Standard PDT, Reduced-dose PDT, Reduced-fluence PDT), intravitreal (IVT) antivascular endothelial growth factor injection (VEGF), observation and other treatments. The list of the OTHERS included both combinations of the main proposed treatments or a variety of other treatments such as eplerenone, spironolactone, acetazolamide, beta-blockers, anti-anxiety drugs, aspirin, folic acid, methotrexate, statins, vitis vinifera extract medication and pars plana vitrectomy. The majority of the patients were men with a prevalence of 77%. The odds ratio (OR) showed a partial or complete resolution of fluid on OCT with any treatment as compared with observation. In univariate analysis, the anatomical result (improvement in subretinal fluid using OCT at 1 month) was favoured by age <60 years (p < 0.005), no previous observation (p < 0.0002), duration less than 3 months (p < 0.0001), absence of CSCR in the fellow eye (p = 0.04), leakage outside of the arcade (p = 0.05) and fluid height >500 \u3bcm (p = 0.03). The OR for obtaining partial or complete resolution showed that anti-VEGF and eyedrops were not statistically significant; whereas PDT (8.5), thermal laser (11.3) and micropulse laser (8.9) lead to better anatomical results with less variability. In univariate analysis, the functional result at 1 month was favoured by first episode (p = 0.04), height of subretinal fluid >500 \u3bcm (p < 0.0001) and short duration of observation (p = 0.02). Finally, there was no statistically significant difference among the treatments at 12 months. Conclusion: Spontaneous resolution has been described in a high percentage of patients. Laser (micropulse and thermal) and PDT seem to lead to significant early anatomical improvement; however, there is little change beyond the first month of treatment. The real visual benefit needs further clarification
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