846 research outputs found

    Color Image Watermarking using JND Sampling Technique

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    This paper presents a color image watermarking scheme using Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Sampling Technique in spatial domain. The nonlinear JND Sampling technique is based on physiological capabilities and limitations of human vision. The quantization levels have been computed using the technique for each of the basic colors R, G and B respectively for sampling color images. A watermark is scaled to half JND image and is added to the JND sampled image at known spatial position. For transmission of the image over a channel, the watermarked image has been represented using Reduced Biquaternion (RB) numbers. The original image and the watermark are retrieved using the proposed algorithms. The detection and retrieval techniques presented in this paper have been quantitatively benchmarked with a few contemporary algorithms using MSE and PSNR. The proposed algorithms outperform most of them. Keywords: Color image watermarking, JND sampling, Reduced Biquaternion, Retrieva

    A Case of Mixed Anxiety Depression in the COVID-19 Lockdown

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    Data for this comparative study were collected from the Fatality Analysis and Reporting System (FARS) for the years 2007 to 2016 for the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, and Washington. The rates of roadway fatalities, especially those of American Indians (which include Aleuts and Eskimos), Guamanians, Samoans, and Native Hawaiians (which include part-Hawaiians) were the focus of the study; they are referred to as “CSET Minorities” in this report; all other races are referred to as “All Others.” Three main contributing factors for fatal crashes—alcohol use, speeding, and non-usage of restraint—were analyzed for each population group. CSET states are lagging behind many countries in terms of traffic safety. Significant differences in the involvement of alcohol, speeding, and non-usage of restraint were indicated between CSET Minority fatalities and All Others. For all types of crashes examined, CSET Minorities exhibited statistically significant differences, nearly all of them being higher or worse than All Others, except for motorcycle crashes. In Hawaii, the proportion of Hawaiians in the population is steady at approximately 21%, but their proportion in FARS database is at 28% and rising. Aggregate data analysis of traffic fatalities focused on three rural, indigenous, tribal, and isolated (RITI) communities in Hawaii, the entire Big Island of Hawaii, and the rural communities of Waianae and Waimanalo on the island of Oahu. All three locations are known for their relatively large number of Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians. The percentage of Hawaiians in traffic fatalities was 32% on the Big Island, 50% in Waianae, and 78% in Waimanalo

    Importance of Geriatrics in Psychiatric postgraduate education

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    Introduction To assess the importance of Geriatrics in Psychiatric postgraduate education Methodology Marks allotted in question papers from Geriatrics in Psychiatry postgraduate examination from a university for a 5-year period was evaluated. Discussion 1-6% of entire theory evaluation was related to Geriatric mental health topics predominantly on dementia and related disorders
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