22 research outputs found

    Challenges in detecting substances for equine anti-doping

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    The artificial increase of the physical capability of horses using drugs is well known in racing and other equine sports. Both illicit and therapeutic substances are regarded as prohibited substances in competition in most countries. Some countries make distinctions for a few, specific drugs which are, however, allowed for use in other countries. The primary objective in the case of doping control is the detection of any trace of drug exposure, either parent drug or any of its metabolites, using the most powerful analytical methods which are generally based on chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques. Of major concern in horseracing is the absence of a single organization regulating the anti-doping framework; instead of this, individual racing authorities provide rules and regulations often resulting in variations in the applied doping control programmes of different countries. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature (approximately from 2012 to mid-2016) to highlight the numerous and diverse challenges faced in doping control of racing and equestrian sports, including the detection of designer drugs (anabolic steroids or stimulants) and of other emerging prohibited substances, such as peptides and noble gases in horse urine and plasma. Moreover, the application of ‘omics’ techniques (especially of metabolomics) deserves attention for establishing possible fingerprints of drug abuse as well as the evolution of instrumental analysis resulting a powerful ally in the fight against doping in equine sports. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Discrimination of tetryl samples by gas chromatography – Isotope ratio mass spectrometry

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    Forensic profiling methods are critical to associate materials found in a crime scene with materials retrieved from a suspect. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry provides opportunity for possible differentiation among samples originating from different sources and has been engaged to solve forensic cases via discrimination not achievable with traditional techniques. Although it has been proven a useful tool in forensic cases its use is still limited. A preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique towards the measurement of carbon isotope values in tetryl samples has been performed in the present study. Six samples of the explosive tetryl were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry and full discrimination among samples was achieved by measuring only carbon isotope ratios (13C/12C). © 201

    Stabilization of human urine doping control samples: A current opinion

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    Transportation of doping control urine samples from the collection sites to the World Anti-doping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is conducted under ambient temperatures. When sample delivery is not immediate, microbial contamination of urine, especially in summer, is a common phenomenon that may affect sample integrity and may result in misinterpretation of analytical data. Furthermore, the possibility of intentional contamination of sports samples during collection with proteolytic enzymes, masking the abuse of prohibited proteins such as erythropoietin (EPO) and peptide hormones, is a practice that has already been reported. Consequently, stabilization of urine samples with a suitable method in a way that protects samples' integrity is important. Currently, no stabilization method is applied in the sample collection equipment system in order to prevent degradation of urine compounds. The present work is an overview of a study, funded by WADA, on degradation and stabilization aspects of sports urine samples against the above threats of degradation. Extensive method development resulted in the creation of a mixture of chemical agents for the stabilization of urine. Evaluation of results demonstrated that the stabilization mixture could stabilize endogenous steroids, recombinant EPO, and human chorionic gonadotropin in almost the entire range of the experimental conditions tested. © 2011 Springer-Verlag

    A generic screening methodology for horse doping control by LC-TOF-MS, GC-HRMS and GC-MS

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    In the present study a general screening protocol was developed to detect prohibited substances and metabolites for doping control purposes in equine sports. It was based on the establishment of a unified sample preparation and on the combined implementation of liquid and gas chromatographic MS analysis. The sample pretreatment began with two parallel procedures: enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfate and glucuronide conjugates, and methanolysis of the 17β-sulfate steroid conjugates. The extracts were treated for LC-TOF-MS, GC-HRMS and GC-MS assays. The majority of the prohibited substances were identified through a high mass accuracy technique, such as LC-TOF-MS, without prior derivatization. The sample preparation procedure included the formation of methylated and trimethylsilylated derivatives common in toxicological GC-MS libraries. The screening method was enhanced by post-run library searching using automated mass spectral deconvolution and identification system (AMDIS) combined with deconvolution reporting software (DRS). The current methodology is able to detect the presence of more than 350 target analytes in horse urine and may easily incorporate a lot of new substances without changes in chromatography. The full scan acquisition allows retrospective identification of prohibited substances in stored urine samples after reprocessing of the acquired data. Validation was performed for sixty representative compounds and included limit of detection, matrix interference - specificity, extraction recovery, precision, mass accuracy, matrix effect and carry over contamination. The suitability of the method was demonstrated with previously declared positive horse urine samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V

    Human in vivo metabolism study of LGD-4033

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    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are an emerging class of therapeutics targeted to cachexia, sarcopenia, and hypogonadism treatment. LGD-4033 is a SARM which has been included on the Prohibited List annually released by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The aim of the present work was the investigation of the metabolism of LGD-4033 in a human excretion study after administration of an LGD-4033 supplement, the determination of the metabolites' excretion profiles with special interest in the determination of its long-term metabolites, and the comparison of the excretion time of the phase I and phase II metabolites. The results were also compared to those derived from previous LGD-4033 studies concerning both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Supplement containing LGD-4033 was administered to one human male volunteer and urine samples were collected up to almost 21 days. Analysis of the hydrolyzed (with β-glucuronidase) as well as of the non-hydrolyzed samples was performed using liquid chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–HRMS) in negative ionization mode and revealed that, in both cases, the two isomers of the dihydroxylated metabolite (M5) were preferred target metabolites. The gluco-conjugated parent LGD-4033 and its gluco-conjugated metabolites M1 and M2 can be also considered as useful target analytes in non-hydrolyzed samples. The study also presents two trihydroxylated metabolites (M6) identified for the first time in human urine; one of them was recently reported in an LGD-4033 metabolism study in horse urine and plasma. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

    Stabilization of human urine doping control samples: IV. Human chorionic gonadotropin

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    The presence of proteolytic enzymes in urine samples, coming from exogenous or endogenous sources, enhances the cleavage of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Moreover, elevated temperatures occurring occasionally during the delayed transportation of sport urine samples, favor the nicking of the hCG molecule. The aim of the current study, funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was the application of a stabilization mixture in athletes' urine samples to chemically inactivate proteolytic enzymes coming from exogenous or endogenous sources so as to prevent the degradation of hCG. The stabilization mixture applied, already tested for the stabilization of endogenous steroids and recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO), was a combination of antibiotics, antimycotic substances, and protease inhibitors. Incubation experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of the stabilization mixture in urine aliquots spiked with six proteases (first series of experiments) and one microorganism associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) (second series of experiments). Intact hCG levels were evaluated by using the EIAgen Total hCG kit. In the first series of experiments, hCG levels were reduced in the untreated aliquots following incubation at 37 °C. The addition of the chemical stabilization mixture prevented degradation of hCG induced by four of the proteases applied. In the second series of experiments, no significant difference was found in urine inoculated with E. coli, between aliquots treated with chemical mixture and the untreated aliquots. The addition of the proposed chemical stabilization mixture improves the quality of athletes' urine samples against possible deterioration due to high temperatures or attempts of proteolytic manipulation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag