80,331 research outputs found

    Gauge-invariant Formulation of the Second-order Cosmological Perturbations

    Get PDF
    Gauge invariant treatments of the second order cosmological perturbation in a four dimensional homogeneous isotropic universe filled with the perfect fluid are completely formulated without any gauge fixing. We derive all components of the Einstein equations in the case where the first order vector and tensor modes are negligible. These equations imply that the tensor and the vector mode of the second order metric perturbations may be generated by the scalar-scalar mode coupling of the linear order perturbations as the result of the non-linear effects of the Einstein equations.Comment: 5 pages, no figure. RevTeX; short letter version of gr-qc/0605108; some details of explanations are adde

    Interatomic forces, phonons, the Foreman-Lomer Theorem and the Blackman Sum Rule

    Full text link
    Foreman and Lomer proposed in 1957 a method of estimating the harmonic forces between parallel planes of atoms of primitive cubic crystals by Fourier transforming the squared frequencies of phonons propagating along principal directions. A generalized form of this theorem is derived in this paper and it is shown that it is more appropriate to apply the method to certain combinations of the phonon dispersion relations rather than to individual dispersion relations themselves. Further, it is also shown how the method may be extended to the non-primitive hexagonal close packed and diamond lattices. Explicit, exact and general relations in terms of atomic force constants are found for deviations from the Blackman sum rule which itself is shown to be derived from the generalized Foreman-Lomer theorem.Comment: 13 pages pd

    Longitudinal and transverse components of a vector field

    Full text link
    A unified account, from a pedagogical perspective, is given of the longitudinal and transverse projective delta functions proposed by Belinfante and of their relation to the Helmholtz theorem for the decomposition of a three-vector field into its longitudinal and transverse components. It is argued that the results are applicable to fields that are time-dependent as well as fields that are time-independent.Comment: 9 pages pdf format. Includes derivation and extension of the Frahm relation and volume integrals of projector

    Comparison of different forms for the "spin" and "orbital" components of the angular momentum of light

    Get PDF
    We compare three attempts that have been made to decompose the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field into components of an "orbital" and "spin" nature. All three expressions are different and it appears, on the basis of classical electrodynamics, that there is no preferred way of decomposing the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field into orbital and spin components, even in an inertial frame.Comment: Some clarifications. 7 pages pdf. Earlier version published in International Journal of Optics: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/aip/728350

    Derivation of the paraxial form of the angular momentum of the electromagnetic field from the general form

    Get PDF
    It is shown how the standard forms for the spin and orbital components of the angular momentum of a paraxial wave of electromagnetic radiation are obtained from the general expressions for the angular momentum that have been derived recently. This result will enable the general expressions for angular momentum to be applied with confidence to the many configurations of electromagnetic fields that are more complicated than plane or paraxial waves.Comment: typos corrected 6 page
    • …