1,298 research outputs found

    Health in my community: Conducting and evaluating photovoice as a tool to promote environmental health and leadership among Latino/a youth

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    BackgroundThe PhotoVoice method has shown substantial promise for work with youth in metropolitan areas, yet its potential for use with Latino youth from agricultural areas has not been well documented.ObjectivesThis project was designed to teach environmental health to 15 high school youth while building their individual and community capacity for studying and addressing shared environmental concerns. The project also aimed to test the utility of PhotoVoice with Latino agricultural youth.MethodsFifteen members of the Youth Community Council (YCC), part of a 15-year project with farmworker families in Salinas, CA, took part in a 12-week PhotoVoice project. Their pictures captured the assets and strengths of their community related to environmental health, and were then analyzed by participants. A multi-pronged evaluation was conducted.ResultsYCC members identified concerns such as poor access to affordable, healthy foods and lack of safe physical spaces in which to play, as well as assets, including caring adults and organizations, and open spaces in surrounding areas. Participants presented their findings on radio, television, at local community events, and to key policy makers. The youth also developed two action plans, a successful 5K run/walk and a school recycling project, still in progress. Evaluation results included significant changes in such areas as perceived ability to make presentations, leadership, and self-confidence, as well as challenges including transportation, group dynamics, and gaining access to people in power.ConclusionThe PhotoVoice method shows promise for environmental health education and youth development in farmworker communities

    Social Determinants of Late Stage HIV Diagnosis and its Distributions among African Americans and Latinos: A critical literature review

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    ABSTRACT This critical literature review was conducted to identify both individual- and environmental-level social determinants of health using an ecological framework as a way to contextualize risk for, and distributions of, late HIV diagnosis among African Americans and Latinos in the United States. Background: Late diagnosis, defined as a diagnosis of AIDS simultaneously with or within one year of an initial HIV diagnosis,1 disproportionately affects African American and Latino communities;2,3 disparities in this health problem thus represent a preventable inequity. Such disparities affect not only late diagnosed individuals but also population levels of HIV incidence, as transmission is unhindered before diagnosis.4,5 Methods: A total of 26 unduplicated studies in 26 peer-reviewed articles were analyzed within a social ecological conceptual framework. Both quantitative and qualitative studies of factors influencing HIV testing were reviewed. To be included, studies had to have been conducted in the United States, published in English within the past 11 years, and to have focused on Latino or African American populations and/or on racial disparities between these and other populations. Findings: The majority of studies on racial disparities in HIV testing and diagnosis have been either cross-sectional1,2,6–11 or focused on one racial or ethnic group, often in one geographic location.12–18 In all studies that compared racial and ethnic groups (n=17), Latinos and African Americans were more likely to receive a late diagnosis3,19 than non-Hispanic Whites or Asian Americans. 95.8% (n= 23) of the reviewed studies focused on individual level risk factors or investigated structural barriers via measurements at the individual level. Next Steps: Both more quantitative and qualitative studies are needed that will enhance understanding of the social determinants of HIV testing behavior among at-risk groups by measuring variables at the appropriate rung of the ecological model, and not solely on the individual level. Studies that investigate barriers to and facilitators of HIV testing in partnership with communities will help further interventions that can reduce racial/ethnic disparities in late diagnosed HIV/AIDS

    Engaging with community researchers for exposure science: lessons learned from a pesticide biomonitoring study

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    A major challenge in biomonitoring studies with members of the general public is ensuring their continued involvement throughout the necessary length of the research. The paper presents evidence on the use of community researchers, recruited from local study areas, as a mechanism for ensuring effective recruitment and retention of farmer and resident participants for a pesticides biomonitoring study. The evidence presented suggests that community researchers' abilities to build and sustain trusting relationships with participants enhanced the rigour of the study as a result of their on-the-ground responsiveness and flexibility resulting in data collection beyond targets expected

    V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transports: Continuing conceptual design study

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    A design study of commercial V/STOL transport airplanes for a 1985 operational time period has been made. The baseline mission considered was 400 nmi at a cruise speed of M = 0.75 and a 100-passenger payload with VTOL. Variations from the baseline included mission distance, payload, cruise speed, and propulsion system failure philosophy. All designs used propulsion systems consisting of multiple gas generators driving remote tip turbine lift and lift/cruise fans. By considering the fan to be designed for operational reliability, significant simplication of the airplane systems and reduction in airplane size and cost can be achieved

    Sí Se Puede: Using Participatory Research to Promote Environmental Justice in a Latino Community in San Diego, California

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    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC’s strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities