180 research outputs found

    Test of a Liquid Argon TPC in a magnetic field and investigation of high temperature superconductors in liquid argon and nitrogen

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    Tests with cosmic ray muons of a small liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) in a magnetic field of 0.55 T are described. No effect of the magnetic field on the imaging properties were observed. In view of a future large, magnetized LAr TPC, we investigated the possibility to operate a high temperature superconducting (HTS) solenoid directly in the LAr of the detector. The critical current IcI_c of HTS cables in an external magnetic field was measured at liquid nitrogen and liquid argon temperatures and a small prototype HTS solenoid was built and tested.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figures, to appear in Proc. of 1st International Workshop towards the Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiment (GLA2010), Tsukuba (Japan), March 201

    First operation of a liquid Argon TPC embedded in a magnetic field

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    We have operated for the first time a liquid Argon TPC immersed in a magnetic field up to 0.55 T. We show that the imaging properties of the detector are not affected by the presence of the magnetic field. The magnetic bending of the ionizing particle allows to discriminate their charge and estimate their momentum. These figures were up to now not accessible in the non-magnetized liquid Argon TPC.Comment: 9 pages, 3 figure

    Feasibility of high-voltage systems for a very long drift in liquid argon TPCs

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    Designs of high-voltage (HV) systems for creating a drift electric field in liquid argon TPCs are reviewed. In ongoing experiments systems capable of approx. 100 kV are realised for a drift field of 0.5-1 kV/cm over a length of up to 1.5 m. Two of them having different approaches are presented: (1) the ICARUS-T600 detector having a system consisting of an external power supply, HV feedthroughs and resistive voltage degraders and (2) the ArDM-1t detector having a cryogenic Greinacher HV multiplier inside the liquid argon volume. For a giant scale liquid argon TPC, a system providing 2 MV may be required to attain a drift length of approx. 20 m. Feasibility of such a system is evaluated by extrapolating the existing designs.Comment: 8 pages, 13 figures, to appear in Proc. of 1st International Workshop towards the Giant Liquid Argon Charge Imaging Experiment (GLA2010), Tsukuba (Japan), March 201

    High-Temperature Superconducting Level Meter for Liquid Argon Detectors

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    Capacitive devices are customarily used as probes to measure the level of noble liquids in detectors operated for neutrino studies and dark matter searches. In this work we describe the use of a high-temperature superconducting material as an alternative to control the level of a cryogenic noble liquid. Lab measurements indicate that the superconductor shows a linear behaviour, a high degree of stability and offers a very accurate determination of the liquid volume. This device is therefore a competitive instrument and shows several advantages over conventional level meters.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures. Accepted for publication in JINS

    A Novel Method for Vibrotactile Proprioceptive Feedback Using Spatial Encoding and Gaussian Interpolation

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    Objective: The bidirectional communication between the user and the prosthesis is an important requirement when developing prosthetic hands. Proprioceptive feedback is fundamental to perceiving prosthesis movement without the need for constant visual attention. We propose a novel solution to encode wrist rotation using a vibromotor array and Gaussian interpolation of vibration intensity. The approach generates tactile sensation that smoothly rotates around the forearm congruently with prosthetic wrist rotation. The performance of this scheme was systematically assessed for a range of parameter values (number of motors and Gaussian standard deviation). Methods: Fifteen able-bodied subjects and one individual with congenital limb deficiency used vibrational feedback to control the virtual hand in the target-achievement test. Performance was assessed by end-point error and efficiency as well as subjective impressions. Results: The results showed a preference for smooth feedback and a higher number of motors (8 and 6 versus 4). With 8 and 6 motors, the standard deviation, determining the sensation spread and continuity, could be modulated through a broad range of values (0.1 - 2) without a significant performance loss (error: ∼ 10%; efficiency: ∼ 30%). For low values of standard deviation (0.1-0.5), the number of motors could be reduced to 4 without a significant performance decrease. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the developed strategy provided meaningful rotation feedback. Moreover, the Gaussian standard deviation can be used as an independent parameter to encode an additional feedback variable. Significance: The proposed method is a flexible and effective approach to providing proprioceptive feedback while adjusting the trade-off between sensation quality and the number of vibromotors

    EMG-driven control in lower limb prostheses: a topic-based systematic review

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    Background The inability of users to directly and intuitively control their state-of-the-art commercial prosthesis contributes to a low device acceptance rate. Since Electromyography (EMG)-based control has the potential to address those inabilities, research has flourished on investigating its incorporation in microprocessor-controlled lower limb prostheses (MLLPs). However, despite the proposed benefits of doing so, there is no clear explanation regarding the absence of a commercial product, in contrast to their upper limb counterparts. Objective and methodologies This manuscript aims to provide a comparative overview of EMG-driven control methods for MLLPs, to identify their prospects and limitations, and to formulate suggestions on future research and development. This is done by systematically reviewing academical studies on EMG MLLPs. In particular, this review is structured by considering four major topics: (1) type of neuro-control, which discusses methods that allow the nervous system to control prosthetic devices through the muscles; (2) type of EMG-driven controllers, which defines the different classes of EMG controllers proposed in the literature; (3) type of neural input and processing, which describes how EMG-driven controllers are implemented; (4) type of performance assessment, which reports the performance of the current state of the art controllers. Results and conclusions The obtained results show that the lack of quantitative and standardized measures hinders the possibility to analytically compare the performances of different EMG-driven controllers. In relation to this issue, the real efficacy of EMG-driven controllers for MLLPs have yet to be validated. Nevertheless, in anticipation of the development of a standardized approach for validating EMG MLLPs, the literature suggests that combining multiple neuro-controller types has the potential to develop a more seamless and reliable EMG-driven control. This solution has the promise to retain the high performance of the currently employed non-EMG-driven controllers for rhythmic activities such as walking, whilst improving the performance of volitional activities such as task switching or non-repetitive movements. Although EMG-driven controllers suffer from many drawbacks, such as high sensitivity to noise, recent progress in invasive neural interfaces for prosthetic control (bionics) will allow to build a more reliable connection between the user and the MLLPs. Therefore, advancements in powered MLLPs with integrated EMG-driven control have the potential to strongly reduce the effects of psychosomatic conditions and musculoskeletal degenerative pathologies that are currently affecting lower limb amputees
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