4,789 research outputs found

    The Routing of Complex Contagion in Kleinberg's Small-World Networks

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    In Kleinberg's small-world network model, strong ties are modeled as deterministic edges in the underlying base grid and weak ties are modeled as random edges connecting remote nodes. The probability of connecting a node uu with node vv through a weak tie is proportional to 1/uvα1/|uv|^\alpha, where uv|uv| is the grid distance between uu and vv and α0\alpha\ge 0 is the parameter of the model. Complex contagion refers to the propagation mechanism in a network where each node is activated only after k2k \ge 2 neighbors of the node are activated. In this paper, we propose the concept of routing of complex contagion (or complex routing), where we can activate one node at one time step with the goal of activating the targeted node in the end. We consider decentralized routing scheme where only the weak ties from the activated nodes are revealed. We study the routing time of complex contagion and compare the result with simple routing and complex diffusion (the diffusion of complex contagion, where all nodes that could be activated are activated immediately in the same step with the goal of activating all nodes in the end). We show that for decentralized complex routing, the routing time is lower bounded by a polynomial in nn (the number of nodes in the network) for all range of α\alpha both in expectation and with high probability (in particular, Ω(n1α+2)\Omega(n^{\frac{1}{\alpha+2}}) for α2\alpha \le 2 and Ω(nα2(α+2))\Omega(n^{\frac{\alpha}{2(\alpha+2)}}) for α>2\alpha > 2 in expectation), while the routing time of simple contagion has polylogarithmic upper bound when α=2\alpha = 2. Our results indicate that complex routing is harder than complex diffusion and the routing time of complex contagion differs exponentially compared to simple contagion at sweetspot.Comment: Conference version will appear in COCOON 201

    Cascade Dynamics of Multiplex Propagation

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    Random links between otherwise distant nodes can greatly facilitate the propagation of disease or information, provided contagion can be transmitted by a single active node. However we show that when the propagation requires simultaneous exposure to multiple sources of activation, called multiplex propagation, the effect of random links is just the opposite: it makes the propagation more difficult to achieve. We calculate analytical and numerically critical points for a threshold model in several classes of complex networks, including an empirical social network.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figures, for similar work visit http://hsd.soc.cornell.edu and http://www.imedea.uib.es/physdep

    Weak ties: Subtle role of information diffusion in online social networks

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    As a social media, online social networks play a vital role in the social information diffusion. However, due to its unique complexity, the mechanism of the diffusion in online social networks is different from the ones in other types of networks and remains unclear to us. Meanwhile, few works have been done to reveal the coupled dynamics of both the structure and the diffusion of online social networks. To this end, in this paper, we propose a model to investigate how the structure is coupled with the diffusion in online social networks from the view of weak ties. Through numerical experiments on large-scale online social networks, we find that in contrast to some previous research results, selecting weak ties preferentially to republish cannot make the information diffuse quickly, while random selection can achieve this goal. However, when we remove the weak ties gradually, the coverage of the information will drop sharply even in the case of random selection. We also give a reasonable explanation for this by extra analysis and experiments. Finally, we conclude that weak ties play a subtle role in the information diffusion in online social networks. On one hand, they act as bridges to connect isolated local communities together and break through the local trapping of the information. On the other hand, selecting them as preferential paths to republish cannot help the information spread further in the network. As a result, weak ties might be of use in the control of the virus spread and the private information diffusion in real-world applications.Comment: Final version published in PR

    Alternative job search strategies in remote rural and peri-urban labour markets: the role of social networks

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    This paper examines the importance of informal methods (especially social networking) to the job search strategies used by unemployed people. It compares three areas: a small rural town; a larger, more sparsely populated, remote rural area; and a centrally-located, peri-urban labour market. The analysis is based first on survey research undertaken with 490 job seekers across the study areas. Emerging issues were then followed up during a series of twelve focus groups. The survey research showed that job seekers in the rural study areas were significantly more likely to use social networks to look for work. However, those who had experienced repeated or long-term periods out of work, the unskilled and young people were significantly less likely to use such networks. Focus groups confirmed the perceived importance of social networking to the job search process in rural areas, in contrast to the more marginal role such methods appear to play in peri-urban settings. For many rural job seekers, formal job search activities conducted through Jobcentres were seen as largely symbolic, lacking the practical value of social networking. These results suggest that service providers seeking to assist unemployed people in rural areas need to address the problems faced by many disadvantaged job seekers who are currently caught between their lack of social network relations and the absence of local public employment service facilities in more remote communities

    Virus Propagation in Multiple Profile Networks

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    Suppose we have a virus or one competing idea/product that propagates over a multiple profile (e.g., social) network. Can we predict what proportion of the network will actually get "infected" (e.g., spread the idea or buy the competing product), when the nodes of the network appear to have different sensitivity based on their profile? For example, if there are two profiles A\mathcal{A} and B\mathcal{B} in a network and the nodes of profile A\mathcal{A} and profile B\mathcal{B} are susceptible to a highly spreading virus with probabilities βA\beta_{\mathcal{A}} and βB\beta_{\mathcal{B}} respectively, what percentage of both profiles will actually get infected from the virus at the end? To reverse the question, what are the necessary conditions so that a predefined percentage of the network is infected? We assume that nodes of different profiles can infect one another and we prove that under realistic conditions, apart from the weak profile (great sensitivity), the stronger profile (low sensitivity) will get infected as well. First, we focus on cliques with the goal to provide exact theoretical results as well as to get some intuition as to how a virus affects such a multiple profile network. Then, we move to the theoretical analysis of arbitrary networks. We provide bounds on certain properties of the network based on the probabilities of infection of each node in it when it reaches the steady state. Finally, we provide extensive experimental results that verify our theoretical results and at the same time provide more insight on the problem

    Slightly generalized Generalized Contagion: Unifying simple models of biological and social spreading

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    We motivate and explore the basic features of generalized contagion, a model mechanism that unifies fundamental models of biological and social contagion. Generalized contagion builds on the elementary observation that spreading and contagion of all kinds involve some form of system memory. We discuss the three main classes of systems that generalized contagion affords, resembling: simple biological contagion; critical mass contagion of social phenomena; and an intermediate, and explosive, vanishing critical mass contagion. We also present a simple explanation of the global spreading condition in the context of a small seed of infected individuals.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures; chapter to appear in "Spreading Dynamics in Social Systems"; Eds. Sune Lehmann and Yong-Yeol Ahn, Springer Natur

    Backbone of complex networks of corporations: The flow of control

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    We present a methodology to extract the backbone of complex networks based on the weight and direction of links, as well as on nontopological properties of nodes. We show how the methodology can be applied in general to networks in which mass or energy is flowing along the links. In particular, the procedure enables us to address important questions in economics, namely, how control and wealth are structured and concentrated across national markets. We report on the first cross-country investigation of ownership networks, focusing on the stock markets of 48 countries around the world. On the one hand, our analysis confirms results expected on the basis of the literature on corporate control, namely, that in Anglo-Saxon countries control tends to be dispersed among numerous shareholders. On the other hand, it also reveals that in the same countries, control is found to be highly concentrated at the global level, namely, lying in the hands of very few important shareholders. Interestingly, the exact opposite is observed for European countries. These results have previously not been reported as they are not observable without the kind of network analysis developed here.Comment: 24 pages, 12 figures, 2nd version (text made more concise and readable, results unchanged

    Order-disorder phase transition in a cliquey social network

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    We investigate the network model of community by Watts, Dodds and Newman (D. J. Watts et al., Science 296 (2002) 1302) as a hierarchy of groups, each of 5 individuals. A homophily parameter α\alpha controls the probability proportional to exp(αx)\exp(-\alpha x) of selection of neighbours against distance xx. The network nodes are endowed with spin-like variables si=±1s_i = \pm 1, with Ising interaction J>0J>0. The Glauber dynamics is used to investigate the order-disorder transition. The transition temperature TcT_c is close to 3.8 for α<0.0\alpha < 0.0 and it falls down to zero above this value. The result provides a mathematical illustration of the social ability to a collective action {\it via} weak ties, as discussed by Granovetter in 1973.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figure

    Early Identification of Violent Criminal Gang Members

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    Gang violence is a major problem in the United States accounting for a large fraction of homicides and other violent crime. In this paper, we study the problem of early identification of violent gang members. Our approach relies on modified centrality measures that take into account additional data of the individuals in the social network of co-arrestees which together with other arrest metadata provide a rich set of features for a classification algorithm. We show our approach obtains high precision and recall (0.89 and 0.78 respectively) in the case where the entire network is known and out-performs current approaches used by law-enforcement to the problem in the case where the network is discovered overtime by virtue of new arrests - mimicking real-world law-enforcement operations. Operational issues are also discussed as we are preparing to leverage this method in an operational environment.Comment: SIGKDD 201

    Weighted evolving networks: coupling topology and weights dynamics

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    We propose a model for the growth of weighted networks that couples the establishment of new edges and vertices and the weights' dynamical evolution. The model is based on a simple weight-driven dynamics and generates networks exhibiting the statistical properties observed in several real-world systems. In particular, the model yields a non-trivial time evolution of vertices' properties and scale-free behavior for the weight, strength and degree distributions.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure