1,240 research outputs found

    Research on the Effect of Non-Thermal Plasma on the Sterilization of Craft Beer

    Get PDF
    The craft beer was continuously sterilized by the non-thermal plasma reactor, and its sterilization and quality were evaluated. The total count of aerobic plate, yeast and Escherichia coli were used as microbial indexes, the effects of plasma sterilization and pasteurization on the bactericidal effect of craft beer were studied. Meanwhile, the beer color, foam hold and pH were evaluated to obtain the optimum sterilization condition with the response surface. The results showed that, compared with pasteurization, the sterilization rate after plasma treatment was almost the same, but the chroma, brightness and bubble retention were better, which was closer to the original beer. The total number of colonies and Escherichia coli were almost completely killed, and the number of yeast was reduced by 97.5% with the 40 kV plasma treatment voltage, 10 s and 60 mL/min gas flow rate. According to the analysis of Design Expert software, the sterilization effect and brightness were the best when the voltage, plasma treatment times and gas flow were 40 kV, 10 s and 60 mL/min, respectively. The predicted values were consistent with the measured values. The influence of each factors were voltage > time > gas flow rate

    An Overview on IEEE 802.11bf: WLAN Sensing

    Full text link
    With recent advancements, the wireless local area network (WLAN) or wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology has been successfully utilized to realize sensing functionalities such as detection, localization, and recognition. However, the WLANs standards are developed mainly for the purpose of communication, and thus may not be able to meet the stringent requirements for emerging sensing applications. To resolve this issue, a new Task Group (TG), namely IEEE 802.11bf, has been established by the IEEE 802.11 working group, with the objective of creating a new amendment to the WLAN standard to meet advanced sensing requirements while minimizing the effect on communications. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the up-to-date efforts in the IEEE 802.11bf TG. First, we introduce the definition of the 802.11bf amendment and its formation and standardization timeline. Next, we discuss the WLAN sensing use cases with the corresponding key performance indicator (KPI) requirements. After reviewing previous WLAN sensing research based on communication-oriented WLAN standards, we identify their limitations and underscore the practical need for the new sensing-oriented amendment in 802.11bf. Furthermore, we discuss the WLAN sensing framework and procedure used for measurement acquisition, by considering both sensing at sub-7GHz and directional multi-gigabit (DMG) sensing at 60 GHz, respectively, and address their shared features, similarities, and differences. In addition, we present various candidate technical features for IEEE 802.11bf, including waveform/sequence design, feedback types, as well as quantization and compression techniques. We also describe the methodologies and the channel modeling used by the IEEE 802.11bf TG for evaluation. Finally, we discuss the challenges and future research directions to motivate more research endeavors towards this field in details.Comment: 31 pages, 25 figures, this is a significant updated version of arXiv:2207.0485

    Perturbed autophagy intervenes systemic lupus erythematosus by active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine

    Get PDF
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common multisystem, multiorgan heterozygous autoimmune disease. The main pathological features of the disease are autoantibody production and immune complex deposition. Autophagy is an important mechanism to maintain cell homeostasis. Autophagy functional abnormalities lead to the accumulation of apoptosis and induce the autoantibodies that result in immune disorders. Therefore, improving autophagy may alleviate the development of SLE. For SLE, glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in clinical treatment, but long-term use of these drugs causes serious side effects in humans. Immunosuppressive agents are expensive. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are widely used for immune diseases due to their low toxicity and few side effects. Many recent studies found that TCM and its active ingredients affected the pathological development of SLE by regulating autophagy. This article explains how autophagy interferes with immune system homeostasis and participates in the occurrence and development of SLE. It also summarizes several studies on TCM-regulated autophagy intervention in SLE to generate new ideas for basic research, the development of novel medications, and the clinical treatment of SLE

    Assessing Nurses' Workplace Social Capital : A Study Protocol for Culturally Appropriate Instrument Development

    Get PDF
    Workplace social capital positively influences the quality but reduces the cost of healthcare services. Academic research suffers from limited and inadequate culturally sensitive nurses' workplace social capital instruments. Here we report on the design and protocol of a culturally focused instrument development study in China. The overarching objective of our dual phase study is to develop and validate a questionnaire measuring nurses' workplace social capital tailored toward Chinese cultural values and norms. In the first phase of INSTRUMENT DEVELOPMENT, the qualitative phase, we will conduct interviews with purposefully sampled nurses from five geographically diverse regions capturing 16 provinces in China to formulate the initial version of the Nurses' Workplace Social Capital Questionnaire (NWSCQ). Data collection will be stopped at the saturation point and content analysis will be performed for interview data in parallel. The initial version of the NWSCQ will be evaluated and confirmed by two-rounds of expert consultation (target N = 20) and pre-tested among 70 nurses. During the second phase of INSTRUMENT VALIDATION or the quantitative phase, we will validate the psychometric properties of the NWSCQ. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire will be examined and validated through three cross-sectional surveys among nurses (target N = 1154) randomly selected from 12 tertiary hospitals. We have reported our study protocol with the intention of sharing our experience with researchers in other countries who are striving to advance the phenomenon of culturally sensitive and social normatively appropriate nurses' workplace social capital. Findings from our study should advance the development of culturally appropriate and valid instrument of nurses' workplace social capital, another important step toward recognition and incorporation of cultural diversity in the daily operation of healthcare industry.Peer reviewe

    Les droits disciplinaires des fonctions publiques : « unification », « harmonisation » ou « distanciation ». A propos de la loi du 26 avril 2016 relative à la déontologie et aux droits et obligations des fonctionnaires

    Get PDF
    The production of tt‾ , W+bb‾ and W+cc‾ is studied in the forward region of proton–proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98±0.02 fb−1 . The W bosons are reconstructed in the decays W→ℓν , where ℓ denotes muon or electron, while the b and c quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions.The production of ttt\overline{t}, W+bbW+b\overline{b} and W+ccW+c\overline{c} is studied in the forward region of proton-proton collisions collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.98 ±\pm 0.02 \mbox{fb}^{-1}. The WW bosons are reconstructed in the decays WνW\rightarrow\ell\nu, where \ell denotes muon or electron, while the bb and cc quarks are reconstructed as jets. All measured cross-sections are in agreement with next-to-leading-order Standard Model predictions