20,327 research outputs found

    Under-reporting of roadcasualties ? phase 1

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    Although this report was commissioned by the Department for Transport, the findings and recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the DfT

    Isolated sequences from the linked Myf-5 and MRF4 genes drive distinct patterns of muscle-specific expression in transgenic mice

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    In developing mouse embryos, MyoD family regulatory genes are expressed specifically in muscle precursors and mature myofibers. This pattern, taken together with the well-established ability of MyoD family members to convert a variety of cell types to skeletal muscle, suggests a significant role for these genes in regulating skeletal myogenesis. The possibility that expression of these genes may be causally associated with segregation of the myogenic lineage from other mesodermal derivatives, or with the subsequent maintenance of muscle phenotypes at later times, raises the issue of how MyoD family genes are themselves regulated during development. In this work, we have initiated studies to identify DNA sequences that govern Myf-5 and MRF4 (herculin, myf-6) transcription. Myf-5 is the first of the MyoD family to be expressed in the developing mouse embryo, while MRF4 is the most abundantly expressed myogenic factor in postnatal animals. In spite of their strikingly divergent patterns of expression, Myf-5 and MRF4 are tightly linked in the mouse genome; their translational start codons are only 8.5 kilobases apart. Here, the 5' flanking regions of the mouse Myf-5 and MRF4 genes were separately linked to a bacterial β-galactosidase (lacZ) gene, and these constructs were each used to produce several lines of transgenic mice. Transgene expression was monitored by X-gal staining of whole embryos and by in situ hybridization of embryo sections. For the Myf-5/lacZ lines, the most intense transgene expression was in the visceral arches and their craniofacial muscle derivatives, beginning at day 8.75 post coitum (p.c.). This correlates with endogenous Myf-5 expression in visceral arches. However, while Myf-5 is also expressed in somites starting at day 8 p.c., transgene expression in the trunk is not observed until day 12 p.c. Thus, the Myf-5/lacZ construct responds to early Myf-5 activators in the visceral arches but not in the somites, suggesting that myogenic determination in the nonsomitic head mesoderm may be under separate control from that of the somitic trunk mesoderm. MRF4/lacZ lines displayed an entirely different pattern from Myf-5. Transgene expression appeared in muscles starting at day 16.5 p.c. and became increasingly prominent at later times. However, an early wave of myotomal expression that is characteristic of the endogenous MRF4 was not recapitulated by the transgene

    Fatal injuries to car occupants: analysis of health and population data

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    Although this report was commissioned by the Department for Transport (DfT), the findings and recommendations are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the DfT. While the DfT has made every effort to ensure the information in this document is accurate, DfT does not guarantee the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of that information; and it cannot accept liability for any loss or damages of any kind resulting from reliance on the information or guidance this document contains

    Transient Random Walks in Random Environment on a Galton-Watson Tree

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    We consider a transient random walk (Xn)(X_n) in random environment on a Galton--Watson tree. Under fairly general assumptions, we give a sharp and explicit criterion for the asymptotic speed to be positive. As a consequence, situations with zero speed are revealed to occur. In such cases, we prove that XnX_n is of order of magnitude nΛn^{\Lambda}, with Λ(0,1)\Lambda \in (0,1). We also show that the linearly edge reinforced random walk on a regular tree always has a positive asymptotic speed, which improves a recent result of Collevecchio \cite{Col06}

    Inventory Information

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    In a market with symmetric information about fundamentals, can information-based trade still arise? Consider bond and FX markets, where private information about nominal cash flows is generally absent, but participants are convinced that superior information exists. We analyze a class of asymmetric information - inventory information - that is unrelated to fundamentals, but still forecasts future price (by forecasting future discount factors). Empirical work based on the analysis shows that inventory information in FX does indeed forecast discount factors, and does so over both short and long horizons. The immediate price impact of shocks to inventory information is large, roughly 50 percent of that from public information shocks (the latter being the whole story under symmetric information). Within about 30 minutes the transitory effect dies out, and prices reflect a permanent effect from inventory information that ranges between 15 and 30 percent of that from public information.

    Trends in fatal car-occupant accidents

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    Short Communication: Selenium needed for Ebola treatment?

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    Is the Sun Lighter than the Earth? Isotopic CO in the Photosphere, Viewed through the Lens of 3D Spectrum Synthesis

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    We consider the formation of solar infrared (2-6 micron) rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) in CO5BOLD 3D convection models, with the aim to refine abundances of the heavy isotopes of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O,17O), to compare with direct capture measurements of solar wind light ions by the Genesis Discovery Mission. We find that previous, mainly 1D, analyses were systematically biased toward lower isotopic ratios (e.g., R23= 12C/13C), suggesting an isotopically "heavy" Sun contrary to accepted fractionation processes thought to have operated in the primitive solar nebula. The new 3D ratios for 13C and 18O are: R23= 91.4 +/- 1.3 (Rsun= 89.2); and R68= 511 +/- 10 (Rsun= 499), where the uncertainties are 1 sigma and "optimistic." We also obtained R67= 2738 +/- 118 (Rsun= 2632), but we caution that the observed 12C17O features are extremely weak. The new solar ratios for the oxygen isotopes fall between the terrestrial values and those reported by Genesis (R68= 530, R6= 2798), although including both within 2 sigma error flags, and go in the direction favoring recent theories for the oxygen isotope composition of Ca-Al inclusions (CAI) in primitive meteorites. While not a major focus of this work, we derive an oxygen abundance of 603 +/- 9 ppm (relative to hydrogen; 8.78 on the logarithmic H= 12 scale). That the Sun likely is lighter than the Earth, isotopically speaking, removes the necessity to invoke exotic fractionation processes during the early construction of the inner solar system