46,614 research outputs found

    Post-Election Ukraine: What Next?

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    Comments on spinning the top: considering the impact of women's paid and unpaid work

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    We should acknowledge that discrimination still exists and that women’s work lives have been considerably improved by their ability to legally challenge discriminatory practices.Sex discrimination against women ; Women - Employment ; Discrimination in employment

    The Adoption and Diffusion of Organizational Innovation: Evidence for the U.S. Economy

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    Using a unique longitudinal representative survey of both manufacturing and non-manufacturing businesses in the United States during the 1990's, I examine the incidence and intensity of organizational innovation and the factors associated with investments in organizational innovation. Past profits tend to be positively associated with organizational innovation. Employers with a more external focus and broader networks to learn about best practices (as proxied by exports, benchmarking, and being part of a multi-establishment firm) are more likely to invest in organizational innovation. Investments in human capital, information technology, R&D, and physical capital appear to be complementary with investments in organizational innovation. In addition, non-unionized manufacturing plants are more likely to have invested more broadly and intensely in organizational innovation.

    The Youth Labor Market in the 80s: Determinants of Re-Employment Probabilities for Young Men and Women

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    This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of re-employment probabilities for young workers in the U.S. Using data from the new National Longitudinal Survey youth cohort a model is developed to analyze the transition probabilities from nonemployment to employment. The key factors examined include personal characteristics, unemployment income, local demand conditions, and duration dependence. There are significant differences between the labor market experiences of whites and nonwhites, and males and females. High school dropouts have many more difficulties in the labor market than those who remain in school longer and/or receive other types of training. Local demand conditions are a strong determinant of the duration of spells of nonemployment and there appears to be strong evidence of negative duration dependence in re-employment probabilities for both young males and young females.

    The growing wage gap: is training the answer?

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    Training programs targeted toward lower skilled workers to a much greater extent than is currently the case could play an important role in narrowing the wage gap. Specific strategies would include assisting firms to develop their own programs, improving the school-to-work transition for non-college-bound high school graduates, and providing displaced workers with the skills needed to take new jobs in growing sectors of the economy.Education ; Employees, Training of ; Wages

    Twelve Hour Longevity of the Oral Malodor-Neutralizing Capacity of an Oral Rinse Product Containing the Chlorine Dioxide Precursor Sodium Chlorite

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    open access articleObjectives: The objectives of this investigation were to investigate the effectiveness and longevity of an oral rinse product containing 0.10% (w/v) of the chlorine dioxide precursor sodium chlorite (1) on oral malodor in participants throughout a 12 h daylight diurnal cycle. Materials and methods: Thirty healthy participants (17 male, 13 female) were recruited to the study. Volatile sulfur compound levels (VSCs: H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S) were simultaneously monitored in their oral cavity air samples both before (0 h) and at 0.33, 4, 8 and 12 h after using the above oral rinse, or water as a negative control (participants refrained from oral hygiene measures during this 12 h period). The experimental design for this cross-over investigation was a mixed model ANOVA-based system incorporating treatments, sampling time-points and participants, together with their first-order interactions, as components of variance. Results: Results acquired demonstrated that the oral rinse formulation effectively suppressed VSC production in the oral environment for 12 h periods (p<0.0001, 0.0001 and 0.002 for H2S, CH3SH and (CH3)2S respectively). Mean 0 vs 12 h reductions in oral cavity H2S and CH3SH concentrations were much greater than those observed for the H2O negative control (p<10-8), but not so for (CH3)2S. Principal component analysis (PCA) a H2S/CH3SH linear combination and (CH3)2S alone significantly loaded on the first and second separate orthogonal components respectively, an observation confirming differing sources for these variable sets. Conclusions: The oral rinse explored effectively blocked VSC production in the oral cavity for a period of 12 h. This extended efficacy duration is likely to be ascribable to the ability of its active ClO2- ingredient to exert a combination of biochemical (direct VSC- and amino acid VSC precursor-consuming) and microbicidal actions in vivo. Clinical relevance: The 12 h longevity of product’s# oral malodor-neutralizing actions is of much clinical significance in view of the involvements of VSCs, particularly CH3SH, in the pathogenesis of gingivitis and periodontiti

    Bibliography of Sequential Sampling Plans in Insect Pest Management Based on Wald\u27s Sequential Probability Ratio Test

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    This paper contains 65 references dealing with the development of sequential sampling plans in insect pest management based on Wald\u27s Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT), 25 in forest entomology and 40 in agriculture entomology. The insect(s) sampled, whether the decision procedure was based on one or two SPRTs, and the mathematical distribution and probabilities of Type I and Type II errors used to develop the SPRTs are also given for each sequential sampling plan
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