291 research outputs found

    Quantum state detection of a superconducting flux qubit using a DC-SQUID in the inductive mode

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    We present a readout method for superconducting flux qubits. The qubit quantum flux state can be measured by determining the Josephson inductance of an inductively coupled DC superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID). We determine the response function of the DC-SQUID and its back-action on the qubit during measurement. Due to driving, the qubit energy relaxation rate depends on the spectral density of the measurement circuit noise at sum and difference frequencies of the qubit Larmor frequency and SQUID driving frequency. The qubit dephasing rate is proportional to the spectral density of circuit noise at the SQUID driving frequency. These features of the backaction are qualitatively different from the case when the SQUID is used in the usual switching mode. For a particular type of readout circuit with feasible parameters we find that single shot readout of a superconducting flux qubit is possible.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures; submitted to Phys. Rev.

    Dynamics of parametric fluctuations induced by quasiparticle tunneling in superconducting flux qubits

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    We present experiments on the dynamics of a two-state parametric fluctuator in a superconducting flux qubit. In spectroscopic measurements, the fluctuator manifests itself as a doublet line. When the qubit is excited in resonance with one of the two doublet lines, the correlation of readout results exhibits an exponential time decay which provides a measure of the fluctuator transition rate. The rate increases with temperature in the interval 40 to 158 mK. Based on the magnitude of the transition rate and the doublet line splitting we conclude that the fluctuation is induced by quasiparticle tunneling. These results demonstrate the importance of considering quasiparticles as a source of decoherence in flux qubits.Comment: 12 pages, including supplementary informatio

    Nondestructive readout for a superconducting flux qubit

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    We present a new readout method for a superconducting flux qubit, based on the measurement of the Josephson inductance of a superconducting quantum interference device that is inductively coupled to the qubit. The intrinsic flux detection efficiency and back-action are suitable for a fast and nondestructive determination of the quantum state of the qubit, as needed for readout of multiple qubits in a quantum computer. We performed spectroscopy of a flux qubit and we measured relaxation times of the order of 80 μs\mu s.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures; modified content, figures and references; accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Let

    High-resolution spatial mapping of a superconducting NbN wire using single-electron detection

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    Superconducting NbN wires have recently received attention as detectors for visible and infrared photons. We present experiments in which we use a NbN wire for high-efficiency (40 %) detection of single electrons with keV energy. We use the beam of a scanning electron microscope as a focussed, stable, and calibrated electron source. Scanning the beam over the surface of the wire provides a map of the detection efficiency. This map shows features as small as 150 nm, revealing wire inhomogeneities. The intrinsic resolution of this mapping method, superior to optical methods, provides the basis of a characterization tool relevant for photon detectors.Comment: 2009 IEEE Toronto International Conference, Science and Technology for Humanity (TIC-STH

    Selective darkening of degenerate transitions for implementing quantum controlled-NOT gates

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    We present a theoretical analysis of the selective darkening method for implementing quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. This method, which we recently proposed and demonstrated, consists of driving two transversely-coupled quantum bits (qubits) with a driving field that is resonant with one of the two qubits. For specific relative amplitudes and phases of the driving field felt by the two qubits, one of the two transitions in the degenerate pair is darkened, or in other words, becomes forbidden by effective selection rules. At these driving conditions, the evolution of the two-qubit state realizes a CNOT gate. The gate speed is found to be limited only by the coupling energy J, which is the fundamental speed limit for any entangling gate. Numerical simulations show that at gate speeds corresponding to 0.48J and 0.07J, the gate fidelity is 99% and 99.99%, respectively, and increases further for lower gate speeds. In addition, the effect of higher-lying energy levels and weak anharmonicity is studied, as well as the scalability of the method to systems of multiple qubits. We conclude that in all these respects this method is competitive with existing schemes for creating entanglement, with the added advantages of being applicable for qubits operating at fixed frequencies (either by design or for exploitation of coherence sweet-spots) and having the simplicity of microwave-only operation.Comment: 25 pages, 5 figure
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