22 research outputs found

    Maternal prenatal psychological distress associates with offspring early-life wheezing - FinnBrain Birth Cohort

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    Background: Exposure to prenatal maternal psychological distress may contribute to the development of childhood atopic disorders. Little is known about the importance of distress severity and its duration for the risk. Our aim was to investigate how chronic maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms across gestation influence the risk of wheezing and eczema at child age 24 months.Methods: The study population was drawn from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, including 1305 mother-infant dyads followed across gestation until the child age of 24 months when the outcomes were mother-reported wheezing ever and doctor-diagnosed eczema. To investigate the risk of wheezing phenotypes, wheezing with and without eczema was separated. Maternal distress was assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale for depressive and the Symptom Checklist-90 for anxiety symptoms three times during pregnancy, and the chronicity was demonstrated using symptom trajectories composed by latent growth mixture modeling.Results: Of the children, 219/1305 (17%) had wheezing ever and 285/1276 (22%) had eczema. Risk of wheezing ever was elevated with maternal consistently high depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 2.74; 95% confidence interval 1.37-5.50) or moderate and increasing anxiety symptoms (1.94; 1.06-3.54, respectively). Similarly, wheezing without eczema was associated with consistently high depressive (3.60; 1.63-7.94, respectively) and moderate and increasing anxiety symptoms (2.43; 1.21-4.91, respectively).Conclusions: Maternal chronic psychological distress across gestation was associated with toddler wheezing and especially wheezing without other atopic features (eczema). This finding supports the theory of intrauterine programming effect by maternal psychological distress on offspring immune system and respiratory morbidity.</p

    Interactions of genetic variants and prenatal stress in relation to the risk for recurrent respiratory infections in children

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    Genetic variants may predispose children to recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) but studies on genotype-environment interaction are rare. We hypothesized that the risk for RRIs is elevated in children with innate immune gene variants, and that prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress further increases the risk. In a birth cohort, children with RRIs (n=96) were identified by the age of 24 months and compared with the remaining cohort children (n=894). The risk for RRIs in children with preselected genetic variants and the interaction between maternal distress during pregnancy and child genotype were assessed with logistic regression. The IL6 minor allele G was associated with elevated risk for RRIs (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.14-2.12). Overall, there was no interaction between maternal psychological distress and child genotype. Exploratory analyses showed that, the association between the variant type of IL6 and the risk for RRIs was dependent on prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress in males (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Our study didn't find genotype-environment interaction between prenatal maternal distress and child genotype. Exploratory analyses suggest sex differences in gene-environment interaction related to susceptibility to RRIs.Peer reviewe

    Prevalence and evolution of snoring and the associated factors in two-year-old children

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    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and persistence of snoring during the first two years of life in two Finnish birth cohorts and to assess the associated factors. Study design: The study population comprised 947 children from the CHILD-SLEEP (CS) and 1393 children from the FinnBrain (FB) birth cohorts. Questionnaires were provided to both parents when the child was 24 months of age. The questionnaire consisted of parts concerning the child's sleep and environmental factors. Results: The combined prevalence of habitual snoring in the two birth cohorts at the age of 24 months was 2.3% (95% CI 1.5-3.1), which is markedly lower than reported previously. Children suffering from recurrent infections (CS odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.5) or asthma (FB OR 4.3, 1.4-13.5) snored habitually more often. Both the mother's (CS OR 3.2, 1.2-9.0) and father's (CS OR 3.4, 1.4-8.0) snoring every night added to the risk of the child snoring. In the multivariate models, parental snoring (CS adjusted odds ratio (ORa) 2.8, 1.1-6.8), the mother's lower level of education (CS ORa 2.9, 1.2-7.5, FB ORa 2.1, 1.0-4.5), and the mother's lower monthly income (FB ORa 2.9, 1.3-6.3) associated with the child's habitual snoring. Conclusions: The prevalence of habitual snoring in two Finnish birth cohorts is lower than reported previously. The independent risk factors for habitual snoring at the age of two years were the parents' snoring and the mother's low income and low education.Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and persistence of snoring during the first two years of life in two Finnish birth cohorts and to assess the associated factors. Study design: The study population comprised 947 children from the CHILD-SLEEP (CS) and 1393 children from the FinnBrain (FB) birth cohorts. Questionnaires were provided to both parents when the child was 24 months of age. The questionnaire consisted of parts concerning the child's sleep and environmental factors. Results: The combined prevalence of habitual snoring in the two birth cohorts at the age of 24 months was 2.3% (95% CI 1.5-3.1), which is markedly lower than reported previously. Children suffering from recurrent infections (CS odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% CI 1.2-12.5) or asthma (FB OR 4.3, 1.4-13.5) snored habitually more often. Both the mother's (CS OR 3.2, 1.2-9.0) and father's (CS OR 3.4, 1.4-8.0) snoring every night added to the risk of the child snoring. In the multivariate models, parental snoring (CS adjusted odds ratio (ORa) 2.8, 1.1-6.8), the mother's lower level of education (CS ORa 2.9, 1.2-7.5, FB ORa 2.1, 1.0-4.5), and the mother's lower monthly income (FB ORa 2.9, 1.3-6.3) associated with the child's habitual snoring. Conclusions: The prevalence of habitual snoring in two Finnish birth cohorts is lower than reported previously. The independent risk factors for habitual snoring at the age of two years were the parents' snoring and the mother's low income and low education. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Interactions of genetic variants and prenatal stress in relation to the risk for recurrent respiratory infections in children

    Get PDF
    Genetic variants may predispose children to recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) but studies on genotype-environment interaction are rare. We hypothesized that the risk for RRIs is elevated in children with innate immune gene variants, and that prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress further increases the risk. In a birth cohort, children with RRIs (n = 96) were identified by the age of 24 months and compared with the remaining cohort children (n = 894). The risk for RRIs in children with preselected genetic variants and the interaction between maternal distress during pregnancy and child genotype were assessed with logistic regression. The IL6 minor allele G was associated with elevated risk for RRIs (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.14–2.12). Overall, there was no interaction between maternal psychological distress and child genotype. Exploratory analyses showed that, the association between the variant type of IL6 and the risk for RRIs was dependent on prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress in males (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.04–3.67). Our study didn’t find genotype-environment interaction between prenatal maternal distress and child genotype. Exploratory analyses suggest sex differences in gene-environment interaction related to susceptibility to RRIs. © 2021, The Author(s).</p

    ÎĽ-opioid receptor availability is associated with sex drive in human males

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    The endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) system modulates a multitude of social and reward-related functions, and exogenous opiates also influence sex drive in humans and animals. Sex drive shows substantial variation across humans, and it is possible that individual differences in MOR availability underlie interindividual of variation in human sex drive. We measured healthy male subjects' (n = 52) brain's MOR availability with positron emission tomography (PET) using an agonist radioligand, [C-11]carfentanil, that has high affinity for MORs. Sex drive was measured using self-reports of engaging in sexual behaviour (sex with partner and masturbating). Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis revealed that sex drive was positively associated with MOR availability in cortical and subcortical areas, notably in caudate nucleus, hippocampus, and cingulate cortices. These results were replicated in full-volume GLM analysis. These widespread effects are in line with high spatial autocorrelation in MOR expression in human brain. Complementary voxel-based morphometry analysis (n = 108) of anatomical MR images provided limited evidence for positive association between sex drive and cortical density in the midcingulate cortex. We conclude that endogenous MOR tone is associated with individual differences in sex drive in human males

    Inhaled Sargramostim Induces Resolution of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in Lysinuric Protein Intolerance

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    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a potentially fatal complication of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), an inherited disorder of cationic amino acid transport. The patients often present with mild respiratory symptoms, which may rapidly progress to acute respiratory failure responding poorly to conventional treatment with steroids and bronchoalveolar lavations (BALs). The pathogenesis of PAP in LPI is still largely unclear. In previous studies, we have shown disturbances in the function and activity of alveolar macrophages of these patients, suggesting that increasing the activity and the number of macrophages by recombinant human GM-CSF (rhuGM-CSF) might be beneficial in this patient group.Two LPI patients with complicated PAP were treated with experimental inhaled rhuGM-CSF (sargramostim) after poor response to maximal conventional therapy. BAL fluid and cell samples from one patient were studied with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.Excellent response to therapy was observed in patient 1 with no compliance problems or side effects. Macrophages with myelin figure-like structures were seen in her BAL sample. Slight improvement of the pulmonary function was evident also in patient 2, but the role of sargramostim could not be properly evaluated due to the complicated clinical situation.In conclusion, inhaled rhuGM-CSF might be of benefit in patients with LPI-associated PAP.</p

    Prevalence and evolution of snoring and the associated factors in two-year-old children

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    AbstractObjectivesTo evaluate the prevalence and persistence of snoring during the first two years of life in two Finnish birth cohorts and to assess the associated factors.Study designThe study population comprised 947 children from the CHILD-SLEEP (CS) and 1393 children from the FinnBrain (FB) birth cohorts. Questionnaires were provided to both parents when the child was 24 months of age. The questionnaire consisted of parts concerning the child's sleep and environmental factors.ResultsThe combined prevalence of habitual snoring in the two birth cohorts at the age of 24 months was 2.3% (95% CI 1.5–3.1), which is markedly lower than reported previously.Children suffering from recurrent infections (CS odds ratio (OR) 3.9, 95% CI 1.2–12.5) or asthma (FB OR 4.3, 1.4–13.5) snored habitually more often. Both the mother's (CS OR 3.2, 1.2–9.0) and father's (CS OR 3.4, 1.4–8.0) snoring every night added to the risk of the child snoring. In the multivariate models, parental snoring (CS adjusted odds ratio (ORa) 2.8, 1.1–6.8), the mother's lower level of education (CS ORa 2.9, 1.2–7.5, FB ORa 2.1, 1.0–4.5), and the mother's lower monthly income (FB ORa 2.9, 1.3–6.3) associated with the child's habitual snoring.ConclusionsThe prevalence of habitual snoring in two Finnish birth cohorts is lower than reported previously. The independent risk factors for habitual snoring at the age of two years were the parents' snoring and the mother's low income and low education.</p

    Päivätoiminnan kehittäminen Hyvinkään Toimari Ry:ssä

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    Opinnäytetyömme toteutettiin yhteistyössä Hyvinkään Toimari ry:n kanssa, joka tarjoaa asumispalveluita ja päiväkeskustoimintaa hyvinkääläisille päihdeongelmaisille. Opinnäytetyömme ‎aiheena on toimipisteen päiväkeskustoiminnan kehittäminen asiakaslähtöisesti. Työmme tarkoituksena on selvittää minkälaisia merkityksiä Toimarin asiakkaat antavat päiväkeskustoiminnalle ‎ja minkälaisia toiveita heillä on päiväkeskustoiminnan parantamiseksi. Tavoitteenamme on, että ‎tutkimustulokset jäävät Toimarin käyttöön päiväkeskustoiminnan kehittämisen apuvälineeksi. ‎ Opinnäytetyötämme varten perehdyimme päihteidenkäyttöä ja päihdehuoltoa, syrjäytymistä, ‎päiväkeskustoimintaa ja sukupuolisensitiivisyyttä käsittelevään kirjallisuuteen sekä tutkimuksiin. ‎Lisäksi olemme lukeneet toiminnallisista ryhmäilmiöistä sekä ikääntyneiden päihteidenkäytön ‎problematiikasta. Näistä aiheista koostuu pääosin myös työmme viitekehys. ‎ Päiväkeskustoiminta on yksi päihdehuollon avohoidon palvelumuodoista, ja sen tarkoituksena on ‎tukea päihdekuntoutuksen jälkeistä selviytymistä. Tyypillisesti päiväkeskukset tarjoavat ‎mahdollisuuden aterioimiseen, pyykinpesuun sekä henkilökohtaisen hygienian hoitamiseen. ‎Päiväkeskustoiminta on monimuotoista, mutta palveluntuottajasta tai palvelukokonaisuudesta ‎riippumatta yhteisiä nimittäjiä toiminnalle ovat matalan kynnyksen periaate sekä asiakkaan ‎osallisuutta ja voimaantumista tukevat yhteisölliset työmenetelmät. ‎ Tavoitteisiin päästäksemme haastattelimme seitsemää Hyvinkään Toimarin asiakasta kvalitatiivisen ‎haastattelututkimuksen menetelmää käyttäen. Kaikki haastattelemamme henkilöt olivat Toimarin ‎asumispalvelun asiakkaita, jotka käyttivät myös päiväkeskuksen palveluita päivittäin. ‎Haastattelujen jälkeen purimme saamamme aineiston nauhalta ja analysoimme sen ‎aineistolähtöisen sisällönanalyysin kautta. ‎ Tutkimustuloksistamme kävi ilmi, että asiakkaat olivat kiinnostuneita erityisesti retkistä, visailuista ‎ja peleistä sekä kirjallisuudesta. Toiminnallisiin ryhmiin oltiin valmiita osallistumaan noin kerran ‎viikossa. Päiväkeskuksen merkitys nähtiin ruoan, hygienian hoidon ja fyysisten puitteiden kautta. ‎Merkityksellistä oli myös Toimarin rooli elämänhallinnan ja sosiaalisten suhteiden ylläpitäjänä.‎Developing of day centre activities for Hyvinkään Toimari Ry Our thesis was made in cooperation with Hyvinkään Toimari ry, that provides residential services ‎and day centre services in Hyvinkää. The subject of the thesis is developing of day centre activities ‎through client oriented approach. The purpose of the study was to find out the meaning of day ‎centre activities for the clients of Toimari and how they wished to improve the activities. The ‎purpose of this study was to produce material that could be applied to improving day centre ‎activities of Toimari now and in the future.‎ The theorical part of this study was based upon literature consisting of such topics as: substance ‎abuse, addiction care, social exclusion, day centre activities and gender sensitivity. Additionally, ‎the theory included paragraphs of functionary group phenomena and substance abuse amongst the ‎elderly.‎ Day centres are a part of outpatient services in addiction care and the purpose of it is to maintain ‎the results of inpatient rehabilitation. Typically day centres provide patients with meals, chance to ‎do laundry and take care of personal hygiene. Activities in day centres vary greatly, but common ‎denominators for all day centres are low threshold principle and communal activities that enhance ‎clients’ empowerment and experience of being a part of something.‎ In order to reach our goals we interviewed seven clients of Toimari using the method of qualitative ‎research interview. All interviewees were clients of Toimari’s residential services and daily users of ‎day centre services. After conducting and transcribing the interviews we analysed the material with ‎material-focused content analysis. ‎ The results showed that the clients of Toimari were especially interested in trips, quizzes, games ‎and literature. They were willing to participate in functionary group activities about once a week. ‎The main aspects of day centre were to provide food and appropriate facilities to take care of ‎one’s hygiene and a place where one could spend time at. Another meaningful role of Toimari is ‎to maintain clients’ life control and social relations.
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