2,516 research outputs found

    Was macht „gute“ BiologielehrkrĂ€fte aus?:Befragungen von Lehrenden in der Didaktik der Biologie und Biologie-Lehramtsstudierenden an deutschen Hochschulen

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    Im Projekt „Optimierung der Biologie-Lehramtsausbildung in gemeinsamer Anstrengung (OBLigAt)“ kommen Vorstellungen und Standpunkte von Biologie-Fachleitern, Biologiedidaktik-Dozenten an den Hochschulen, Biologie-Lehramtsstudierenden und -Referendaren zur Verbesserung der Ausbildung zum Ausdruck. Es werden die Ergebnisse von 79 Hochschuldozenten in der Didaktik der Biologie und von 442 Biologie-Lehramtsstudenten vorgestellt. Nach ihrer Meinung werden in den fachdidaktischen Studienanteilen viele Aspekte, die zu gutem Unterricht fĂŒhren sollen, gut bis befriedigend behandelt. GrundsĂ€tzlich werden hierbei die Bedeutung der BerĂŒcksichtigung von SchĂŒlervorstellungen erkannt sowie personale und diagnostische Kompetenzen ausgebildet. Diskrepanzen zwischen der Schwerpunktsetzung der Dozenten und den Vorstellungen der Studierenden liegen in der Forderung der Studierenden nach mehr praktischen Aspekten, die sich unmittelbar fĂŒr den Unterricht umsetzen lassen. Eine theoretische Fundierung als Basis der Unterrichtsgestaltung rĂŒckt eher fĂŒr Dozenten in den Vordergrund. Insgesamt ist die Kooperation zwischen Fachwissenschaft, Didaktik und PĂ€dagogik zu optimieren. Die Ergebnisse bieten Ansatzpunkte, die Ausbildung im Sinne des Projekts OBLigAt zu verbessern

    Investigation of early supplementation of nucleotides on the intestinal maturation of weaned piglets

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    Nucleotides are essential for the development of the gastrointestinal tract and immune function, but their intake with milk by piglets could be insufficient. The effect of nucleotides on growth and health was tested on 98 piglets divided into two groups: NU, orally administrated with 4 mL of a nucleotide-based product (SwineMOD¼ ) at 10, 15, 18, 21, 27 days, or not (CO). Blood and feces were sampled at weaning (26 d, T1), and at 38 d (T2). Per each group and time-point, eight piglets were slaughtered and jejunal Peyer’s patches (JPPs) were collected. NU increased hemoglobin content and hematocrit, but not growth. At weaning, the NU fecal microbiota was characterized by the abundance of Campylobacteraceae, more typical of the growing phase, compared to CO, with a greater abundance of Streptococcaceae. For the blood transcriptome, an initial greater inflammatory activation was seen in CO, while at T2, NU enriched gene sets related to erythropoiesis. The activation of gene groups ranging from epigenetic response to transcriptional regulation evidenced an intense proliferative activity in NU JPPs. NU supplementation did not influence the growth performance of piglets but could have expressed a positive effect on pig microbiota anticipating its maturation at weaning. This immunostimulant activity in the JPPs could moderate the inflammation in the immediate pre-weaning

    A statement by Scientists for Future concerning the protests for more climate protection

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    In March 2019, German-speaking scientists and scholars calling themselves Scientists for Future, published a statement in support of the youth protesters in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland (Fridays for Future, Klimastreik/Climate Strike), verifying the scientific evidence that the youth protestors refer to. In this article, they provide the full text of the statement, including the list of supporting facts (in both English and German) as well as an analysis of the results and impacts of the statement. Furthermore, they reflect on the challenges for scientists and scholars who feel a dual responsibility: on the one hand, to remain independent and politically neutral, and, on the other hand, to inform and warn societies of the dangers that lie ahead

    The neglected liaison: Targeting cancer cell metabolic reprogramming modifies the composition of non‐malignant populations of the tumor microenvironment

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    Metabolic reprogramming is a well‐known hallmark of cancer, whereby the development of drugs that target cancer cell metabolism is gaining momentum. However, when establishing preclinical studies and clinical trials, it is often neglected that a tumor mass is a complex system in which cancer cells coexist and interact with several types of microenvironment populations, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts and immune cells. We are just starting to understand how such populations are affected by the metabolic changes occurring in a transformed cell and little is known about the impact of metabolism‐targeting drugs on the non‐malignant tumor components. Here we provide a general overview of the links between cancer cell metabolism and tumor microenvironment (TME), particularly focusing on the emerging literature reporting TME‐specific effects of metabolic therapies

    Land degradation assessment for sustainable soil management

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    Desertification is a complex phenomenon defined as the extreme degree of land degradation induced by human activities and climatic conditions. Climate change is accelerating and widening these areas. Previews analysis and studies assessed the vulnerability to desertification in Italy at national and regional level through a methodological approach based on integrating climate, soil, vege-tation, and socio-economic data (ESA). The studies carried out by ISPRA aim to provide an update of the of land degradation assessment in Italy, based on Trends.Earth methodology and of the three UN-SDGs sub-indicators on Target 15.3.1 (land use/land cover, land productivity and soil organic carbon above and below ground status and trends), together with additional dimensions of land degradation considered crucial for national land characters. Final assessment of the percentage of degraded land is around 36% of national area. This exercise demonstrates the importance to con-sider a larger number of data and include information on other fac-tors, such as climate, physical, chemical data. This integrated approach to the assessment of land degradation will allow to describe also of the loss of related ecosystem services

    Cells as active particles in asymmetric potentials: Motility under external gradients

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    Cell migration is a crucial event during development and in disease. Mechanical constraints and chemical gradients can contribute to the establishment of cell direction, but their respective roles remain poorly understood. Using a microfabricated topographical ratchet, we show that the nucleus dictates the direction of cell movement through mechanical guidance by its environment. We demonstrate that this direction can be tuned by combining the topographical ratchet with a biochemical gradient of fibronectin adhesion. We report competition and cooperation between the two external cues. We also quantitatively compare the measurements associated with the trajectory of a model that treats cells as fluctuating particles trapped in a periodic asymmetric potential. We show that the cell nucleus contributes to the strength of the trap, whereas cell protrusions guided by the adhesive gradients add a constant tunable bias to the direction of cell motion

    In ovo injection of a galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotic in broiler chickens submitted to heat-stress: Impact on transcriptomic profile and plasma immune parameters.

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    This study investigated the effects of a galactooligosaccharide (GOS) prebiotic in ovo injected on intestinal transcriptome and plasma immune parameters of broiler chickens kept under thermoneutral (TN) or heat stress (HS) conditions. Fertilized Ross 308 eggs were injected in ovo with 0.2 mL physiological saline without (control, CON) or with 3.5 mg of GOS (GOS). Three-hundred male chicks/injection treatment (25 birds/pen) were kept in TN or HS (30\ub0 C) conditions during the last growing phase, in a 2 x 2 factorial design. At slaughter, from 20 birds/injection group (half from TN and half from HS), jejunum and cecum were collected for transcriptome analysis, and plasma was collected. No differences in plasma parameters (IgA and IgG, serum amyloid) and no interaction between injection treatment and environment condition were found. GOS-enriched gene sets related to energetic metabolism in jejunum, and to lipid metabolism in cecum, were involved in gut barrier maintenance. A homogeneous reaction to heat stress was determined along the gut, which showed downregulation of the genes related to energy and immunity, irrespective of in ovo treatment. GOS efficacy in counteracting heat stress was scarce after ten days of environmental treatment, but the in ovo supplementation modulates group of genes in jejunum and cecum of broiler chickens

    Experimental exposure assessment of designed chemical mixtures in cell-based in vitro bioassays

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    Cell-based bioassays are useful tools for the effect assessment of complex mixtures, but so far exposure assessment has not been performed for mixtures of chemicals. In the present study, cytotoxicity and activation of oxidative stress response were measured for three designed chemical mixtures with up to twelve components. The measurements of biological responses were complemented by concentration measurements using solid-phase microextraction to derive the freely dissolved concentrations of the mixtures (Cfree,mix). The tested mixtures showed slightly higher cytotoxic effects than predicted by the concentration addition model. Nominal and freely dissolved effect concentrations of the mixtures were very similar (within a factor of 1.5), but nominal concentrations (Cnom) and Cfree of the individual mixture components were only similar for the hydrophilic chemicals (e.g., caffeine, coumarin, lamotrigine). For hydrophobic (e.g., fluoranthene) and acidic chemicals (e.g., diclofenac, naproxen) Cfree was up to 648 times lower than Cnom. Chemicals were dosed in equipotent nominal concentration ratios and therefore contributed equally to the detected effects. Hydrophilic chemicals with low potency dominated Cnom,mix (up to 95%) and Cfree,mix (up to 99%). Several mixture components (e.g., diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and warfarin) showed increasing free fractions with increasing Cnom,mix and therefore also a concentration-dependent contribution to Cfree,mix. Based on the findings of this study, we concluded that Cnom,mix will be sufficient for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures that contain chemicals with diverse physicochemical properties at low concentration levels. In contrast, for risk assessment purposes and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations, Cfree,mix is a better parameter because the in vitro responses can be related to freely dissolved concentrations in human plasma

    SiDroForest: a comprehensive forest inventory of Siberian boreal forest investigations including drone-based point clouds, individually labeled trees, synthetically generated tree crowns, and Sentinel-2 labeled image patches

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    The SiDroForest (Siberian drone-mapped forest inventory) data collection is an attempt to remedy the scarcity of forest structure data in the circumboreal region by providing adjusted and labeled tree-level and vegetation plot-level data for machine learning and upscaling purposes. We present datasets of vegetation composition and tree and plot level forest structure for two important vegetation transition zones in Siberia, Russia; the summergreen–evergreen transition zone in Central Yakutia and the tundra–taiga transition zone in Chukotka (NE Siberia). The SiDroForest data collection consists of four datasets that contain different complementary data types that together support in-depth analyses from different perspectives of Siberian Forest plot data for multi-purpose applications. i. Dataset 1 provides unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-borne data products covering the vegetation plots surveyed during fieldwork (Kruse et al., 2021, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.933263). The dataset includes structure-from-motion (SfM) point clouds and red–green–blue (RGB) and red–green–near-infrared (RGN) orthomosaics. From the orthomosaics, point-cloud products were created such as the digital elevation model (DEM), canopy height model (CHM), digital surface model (DSM) and the digital terrain model (DTM). The point-cloud products provide information on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the forest at each plot.ii. Dataset 2 contains spatial data in the form of point and polygon shapefiles of 872 individually labeled trees and shrubs that were recorded during fieldwork at the same vegetation plots (van Geffen et al., 2021c, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.932821). The dataset contains information on tree height, crown diameter, and species type. These tree and shrub individually labeled point and polygon shapefiles were generated on top of the RGB UVA orthoimages. The individual tree information collected during the expedition such as tree height, crown diameter, and vitality are provided in table format. This dataset can be used to link individual information on trees to the location of the specific tree in the SfM point clouds, providing for example, opportunity to validate the extracted tree height from the first dataset. The dataset provides unique insights into the current state of individual trees and shrubs and allows for monitoring the effects of climate change on these individuals in the future.iii. Dataset 3 contains a synthesis of 10 000 generated images and masks that have the tree crowns of two species of larch (Larix gmelinii and Larix cajanderi) automatically extracted from the RGB UAV images in the common objects in context (COCO) format (van Geffen et al., 2021a, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.932795). As machine-learning algorithms need a large dataset to train on, the synthetic dataset was specifically created to be used for machine-learning algorithms to detect Siberian larch species.iv. Dataset 4 contains Sentinel-2 (S-2) Level-2 bottom-of-atmosphere processed labeled image patches with seasonal information and annotated vegetation categories covering the vegetation plots (van Geffen et al., 2021b, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.933268). The dataset is created with the aim of providing a small ready-to-use validation and training dataset to be used in various vegetation-related machine-learning tasks. It enhances the data collection as it allows classification of a larger area with the provided vegetation classes. The SiDroForest data collection serves a variety of user communities. The detailed vegetation cover and structure information in the first two datasets are of use for ecological applications, on one hand for summergreen and evergreen needle-leaf forests and also for tundra–taiga ecotones. Datasets 1 and 2 further support the generation and validation of land cover remote-sensing products in radar and optical remote sensing. In addition to providing information on forest structure and vegetation composition of the vegetation plots, the third and fourth datasets are prepared as training and validation data for machine-learning purposes. For example, the synthetic tree-crown dataset is generated from the raw UAV images and optimized to be used in neural networks. Furthermore, the fourth SiDroForest dataset contains S-2 labeled image patches processed to a high standard that provide training data on vegetation class categories for machine-learning classification with JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) labels provided. The SiDroForest data collection adds unique insights into remote hard-to-reach circumboreal forest regions.</p

    The LBNO long-baseline oscillation sensitivities with two conventional neutrino beams at different baselines

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    The proposed Long Baseline Neutrino Observatory (LBNO) initially consists of ∌20\sim 20 kton liquid double phase TPC complemented by a magnetised iron calorimeter, to be installed at the Pyh\"asalmi mine, at a distance of 2300 km from CERN. The conventional neutrino beam is produced by 400 GeV protons accelerated at the SPS accelerator delivering 700 kW of power. The long baseline provides a unique opportunity to study neutrino flavour oscillations over their 1st and 2nd oscillation maxima exploring the L/EL/E behaviour, and distinguishing effects arising from ÎŽCP\delta_{CP} and matter. In this paper we show how this comprehensive physics case can be further enhanced and complemented if a neutrino beam produced at the Protvino IHEP accelerator complex, at a distance of 1160 km, and with modest power of 450 kW is aimed towards the same far detectors. We show that the coupling of two independent sub-MW conventional neutrino and antineutrino beams at different baselines from CERN and Protvino will allow to measure CP violation in the leptonic sector at a confidence level of at least 3σ3\sigma for 50\% of the true values of ÎŽCP\delta_{CP} with a 20 kton detector. With a far detector of 70 kton, the combination allows a 3σ3\sigma sensitivity for 75\% of the true values of ÎŽCP\delta_{CP} after 10 years of running. Running two independent neutrino beams, each at a power below 1 MW, is more within today's state of the art than the long-term operation of a new single high-energy multi-MW facility, which has several technical challenges and will likely require a learning curve.Comment: 21 pages, 12 figure