1,522 research outputs found

    Do Girls Really Experience More Anxiety in Mathematics?

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    Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students' beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed

    Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon

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    It was recently demonstrated that the Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell, Nature Materials 2, 739 (2003)). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5 %. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.Comment: 13 page

    Toxicity of Ammonia and Nitrite to Aquatic Macroinvertebrates

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    The acute toxicity of ammonia was studied for six aquatic macroinvertebrate species (mayfly, stonefly, and caddisfly families). Two partial-chronic (24- and 30-day) tests were conducted on Pteronarcella badia. The acute toxicity of nitrite was studied for seven species, including one Diptera species; the mitigating effect of chloride ion on nitrite toxicity to two species was also investigated. For 6 tests on ammonia the median lethal concentration (96-hour LC50) values ranged from 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L un-ionized ammonia (NH3); in 19 tests less than 50% of the larvae died at the highest test concentration, so an LC50 could not be calculated. In the partial-chronic tests on P. badia, food consumption was not affected at concentrations up to 6.9 mg/L NH3, but concentrations in excess of 3.4 mg/L NH3 adversely affected nymphal survival rates and emergence of adults. For nitrite toxicity, test results showed a wide range of tolerance. The 96-hour LC50 for the single species of Diptera exceeded 123 mg/liter NO2-N; the 96-hour LC50 range for the other tests was between 0.25 and 2.4 mg/liter NO2-N. The addition of 10 mg/liter chloride ion in nitrite tests on P. badia and Ephemerella grandis resulted in a 3- to 10-fold decrease in 96-hour LC50 values. The tolerance to ammonia of the most sensitive of the insect species tested was greater than that reported in the literature for most species of fishes. Except for A. variegata, the range of acute toxicity of nitrite to the insects tested was similar to that reported for fishes

    Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Operations into the National Airspace System

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    Commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are expected to dominate the National Airspace System (NAS) in the years to come. One particular barrier preventing integration of UAS into the NAS is the lack of standardized procedures for separating aircraft and communicating with ATC. In preparation for adopting unmanned flight operations into a complex control system, it is important to identify solutions to effectively control UAS in the NAS. The Joint UAS and ATC Team (JUAT) group has designed several simulated ATC scenarios in order to determine effective solutions for integration. Through the use of digitized radar display overlays that replicate the military grid reference system (MGRS) in conjunction with traditional airspace sectors/boundaries the JUAT is able to simulate UAS operations on a basic level

    Rabl's model of the interphase chromosome arrangement tested in Chinise hamster cells by premature chromosome condensation and laser-UV-microbeam experiments

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    In 1885 Carl Rabl published his theory on the internal structure of the interphase nucleus. We have tested two predictions of this theory in fibroblasts grown in vitro from a female Chinese hamster, namely (1) the Rabl-orientation of interphase chromosomes and (2) the stability of the chromosome arrangement established in telophase throughout the subsequent interphase. Tests were carried out by premature chromosome condensation (PCC) and laser-UV-microirradiation of the interphase nucleus. Rabl-orientation of chromosomes was observed in G1 PCCs and G2 PCCs. The cell nucleus was microirradiated in G1 at one or two sites and pulse-labelled with 3H-thymidine for 2h. Cells were processed for autoradiography either immediately thereafter or after an additional growth period of 10 to 60h. Autoradiographs show unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in the microirradiated nuclear part(s). The distribution of labelled chromatin was evaluated in autoradiographs from 1035 cells after microirradiation of a single nuclear site and from 253 cells after microirradiation of two sites. After 30 to 60h postincubation the labelled regions still appeared coherent although the average size of the labelled nuclear area fr increased from 14.2% (0h) to 26.5% (60h). The relative distance dr, i.e. the distance between two microirradiated sites divided by the diameter of the whole nucleus, showed a slight decrease with increasing incubation time. Nine metaphase figures were evaluated for UDS-label after microirradiation of the nuclear edge in G1. An average of 4.3 chromosomes per cell were labelled. Several chromosomes showed joint labelling of both distal chromosome arms including the telomeres, while the centromeric region was free from label. This label pattern is interpreted as the result of a V-shaped orientation of these particular chromosomes in the interphase nucleus with their telomeric regions close to each other at the nuclear edge. Our data support the tested predictions of the Rabl-model. Small time-dependent changes of the nuclear space occupied by single chromosomes and of their relative positions in the interphase nucleus seem possible, while the territorial organization of interphase chromosomes and their arrangement in general is maintained during interphase. The present limitations of the methods used for this study are discussed

    Adopting Unmanned Flight Operations into Controlled Airspace

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    Unmanned aircraft activity is becoming more common within the National Airspace System (NAS) and is expected to dominate the NAS in the near future. Specific procedures for adopting unmanned aircraft into the National Airspace System (NAS). A variation of the Military Grid Reference System was developed and digitally overlaid onto the radar display. To incorporate this grid system, a customized flight plan database was created for the storage of operator submitted flight plans. Instead of verbal communication, a computer chat system is used for communication because of the low altitude operations in the field. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has made UAS integration a top priority as they projected that the UAS market will reach 7 million systems by 2020. The JUAT is in the process of developing a conclusive solution that will help to safely adopt UAS

    Application of collapsing methods for continuous traits to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 exome sequence data

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    Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 used real sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project and simulated phenotypes influenced by a large number of rare variants. Our aim is to evaluate the performance of various collapsing methods that were developed for analysis of multiple rare variants. We apply collapsing methods to continuous phenotypes Q1 and Q2 for all 200 replicates of the unrelated individuals data. Within each gene, we collapse (1) all SNPs, (2) all SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05, and (3) nonsynonymous SNPs with MAF < 0.05. We consider two tests when collapsing variants: using the proportion of variants and using the presence/absence of any variant. We also compare our results to a single-marker analysis using PLINK. For phenotype Q1, the proportion test for collapsing rare nonsynonymous SNPs often performed the best. Two genes (FLT1 and KDR) had statistically significant results. A single-marker analysis using PLINK also provided statistically significant results for some SNPs within these two genes. For phenotype Q2, collapsing rare nonsynonymous SNPs performed the best, with almost no difference between proportion and presence tests. However, neither collapsing methods nor a single-marker analysis provided statistically significant results at the true genes for Q2. We also found that a large number of noncausal genes had high correlations with causal genes for Q1 and Q2, which may account for inflated false positives

    Enrichment analysis of genetic association in genes and pathways by aggregating signals from both rare and common variants

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    New high-throughput sequencing technologies have brought forth opportunities for unbiased analysis of thousands of rare genomic variants in genome-wide association studies of complex diseases. Because it is hard to detect single rare variants with appreciable effect sizes at the population level, existing methods mostly aggregate effects of multiple markers by collapsing the rare variants in genes (or genomic regions). We hypothesize that a higher level of aggregation can further improve association signal strength. Using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 simulated data, we test a two-step strategy that first applies a collapsing method in a gene-level analysis and then aggregates the gene-level test results by performing an enrichment analysis in gene sets. We find that the gene set approach which combines signals across multiple genes outperforms testing individual genes separately and that the power of the gene set enrichment test is further improved by proper adjustment of statistics to account for gene-wise differences

    Stratify or adjust? Dealing with multiple populations when evaluating rare variants

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    The unrelated individuals sample from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 consists of a small number of subjects from eight population samples and genetic data composed mostly of rare variants. We compare two simple approaches to collapsing rare variants within genes for their utility in identifying genes that affect phenotype. We also compare results from stratified analyses to those from a pooled analysis that uses ethnicity as a covariate. We found that the two collapsing approaches were similarly effective in identifying genes that contain causative variants in these data. However, including population as a covariate was not an effective substitute for analyzing the subpopulations separately when only one subpopulation contained a rare variant linked to the phenotype
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