274 research outputs found

    Observational Properties of SNe Ia Progenitors Close to the Explosion

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    We determine the expected signal in various observational bands of Supernovae Ia progenitors just before the explosion by assuming the rotating Double Degenerate scenario. Our results are valid also for all the evolutionary scenarios invoking rotation as the driving mechanism of the accretion process as well as the evolution up to the explosion. We find that the observational properties depend mainly on the mass of the exploding object, even if the angular momentum evolution after the end of the mass accretion phase and before the onset of C-burning plays a non-negligible role. Just before the explosion the magnitude M_V ranges between 9 and 11 mag, while the colour (F225W-F555W) is about -1.64 mag. The photometric properties remain constant for a few decades before the explosion. During the last few months the luminosity decreases very rapidly. The corresponding decline in the optical bands varies from few hundredths up to one magnitude, the exact value depending on both the WD total mass and the braking efficiency at the end of the mass transfer. This feature is related to the exponentially increasing energy production which drives the formation of a convective core rapidly extending over a large part of the exploding object. Also a drop in the angular velocity occurs. We find that observations in the soft X band (0.5 -2 keV) may be used to check if the SNe Ia progenitors evolution up to explosion is driven by rotation and, hence, to discriminate among different progenitor scenarios.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. Accepted for the publication on MNRA

    Material Symmetries in Homogenized Hexagonal-Shaped Composites as Cosserat Continua

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    In this work, material symmetries in homogenized composites are analyzed. Composite materials are described as materials made of rigid particles and elastic interfaces. Rigid particles of arbitrary hexagonal shape are considered and their geometry described by a limited set of parameters. The purpose of this study is to analyze different geometrical configurations of the assemblies corresponding to various material symmetries such as orthotetragonal, auxetic and chiral. The problem is investigated through a homogenization technique which is able to carry out constitutive parameters using a principle of energetic equivalence. The constitutive law of the homogenized continuum has been derived within the framework of Cosserat elasticity, wherein the continuum has additional degrees of freedom with respect to classical elasticity. A panel composed of material with various symmetries, corresponding to some particular hexagonal geometries defined, is analyzed under the effect of localized loads. The results obtained show the difference of the micropolar response for the considered material symmetries, which depends on the non-symmetries of the strain and stress tensor as well as on the additional kinematical and work-conjugated statical descriptors. This work underlines the importance of resorting to the Cosserat theory when analyzing anisotropic materials

    Nano-beams under torsion: a stress-driven nonlocal approach

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    Purpose This study aims to model scale effects in nano-beams under torsion. Design/methodology/approach The elastostatic problem of a nano-beam is formulated by a novel stress-driven nonlocal approach. Findings Unlike the standard strain-driven nonlocal methodology, the proposed stress-driven nonlocal model is mathematically and mechanically consistent. The contributed results are useful for the design of modern devices at nanoscale. Originality/value The innovative stress-driven integral nonlocal model, recently proposed in literature for inflected nano-beams, is formulated in the present submission to study size-dependent torsional behavior of nano-beams

    A Fully Gradient Model for Euler-Bernoulli Nanobeams

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    A fully gradient elasticity model for bending of nanobeams is proposed by using a nonlocal thermodynamic approach. As a basic theoretical novelty, the proposed constitutive law is assumed to depend on the axial strain gradient, while existing gradient elasticity formulations for nanobeams contemplate only the derivative of the axial strain with respect to the axis of the structure. Variational equations governing the elastic equilibrium problem of bending of a fully gradient nanobeam and the corresponding differential and boundary conditions are thus provided. Analytical solutions for a nanocantilever are given and the results are compared with those predicted by other theories. As a relevant implication of applicative interest in the research field of nanobeams used in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), it is shown that displacements obtained by the present model are quite different from those predicted by the known gradient elasticity treatments

    A moving interface finite element formulation to predict dynamic edge debonding in FRP-strengthened concrete beams in service conditions

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    A new methodology to predict interfacial debonding phenomena in fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) concrete beams in the serviceability load condition is proposed. The numerical model, formulated in a bi-dimensional context, incorporates moving mesh modelling of cohesive interfaces in order to simulate crack initiation and propagation between concrete and FRP strengthening. Interface elements are used to predict debonding mechanisms. The concrete beams, as well as the FRP strengthening, follow a one-dimensional model based on Timoshenko beam kinematics theory, whereas the adhesive layer is simulated by using a 2D plane stress formulation. The implementation, which is developed in the framework of a finite element (FE) formulation, as well as the solution scheme and a numerical case study are presented

    Semi-analytical static analysis of nonlocal strain gradient laminated composite nanoplates in hygrothermal environment

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    AbstractIn this work, the bending behavior of nanoplates subjected to both sinusoidal and uniform loads in hygrothermal environment is investigated. The present plate theory is based on the classical laminated thin plate theory with strain gradient effect to take into account the nonlocality present in the nanostructures. The equilibrium equations have been carried out by using the principle of virtual works and a system of partial differential equations of the sixth order has been carried out, in contrast to the classical thin plate theory system of the fourth order. The solution has been obtained using a trigonometric expansion (e.g., Navier method) which is applicable to simply supported boundary conditions and limited lamination schemes. The solution is exact for sinusoidal loads; nevertheless, convergence has to be proved for other load types such as the uniform one. Both the effect of the hygrothermal loads and lamination schemes (cross-ply and angle-ply nanoplates) on the bending behavior of thin nanoplates are studied. Results are reported in dimensionless form and validity of the present methodology has been proven, when possible, by comparing the results to the ones from the literature (available only for cross-ply laminates). Novel applications are shown both for cross- and angle-ply laminated which can be considered for further developments in the same topic

    Modulated linear dynamics of nanobeams accounting for higher gradient effects

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    We present some numerical results for the linear dynamics of nanobeams modulated by an axial force, basing on a recent proposal of literature that encompasses both the standard nonlocal elasticity, according to Eringen, and second-order strain elasticity. Three different possibilities for the elastic potential energy provide different responses that highlight the contributions of nonlocality and strain gradient, plus their combination. An axial force affects the linear stationary dynamics of such nanobeams, inducing suitable variation of the natural angular frequencies for benchmark cases, until static buckling occurs when the natural angular frequency vanishes. Effects of the various elastic potentials on this modulation are investigated and thoroughly commented

    Fast and Optimized Calculation of the Cable Pretension Forces in Arch Bridges With Suspended Deck

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    grant number 2017J4EAYBThis paper presents with an effective and fast approach to the optimization of the pretension forces in arched bridges with suspended deck, which makes use of the influence matrix method (IMM). The given cable-tensioning procedure leads to a linear system of equations with a reduced number of unknowns and can be effectively implemented within active control procedures that handle time-varying loading conditions. This method produces a target bending moment distribution (TBMD) over the structure, which significantly mitigates the state of stress of the deck. Numerical simulations referred to a Nielsen arch bridge illustrate the versatility of the proposed approach when dealing with different loading conditions.publishersversionpublishe

    A detailed micro-model for brick masonry structures based on a diffuse cohesive-frictional interface fracture approach

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    Abstract In the past decades, the mechanical behavior of brick masonry material has been largely investigated using different modeling strategies, ranging from purely microscopic to purely macroscopic ones. The so-called simplified micro-modeling approaches, in which the behavior of mortar joints and brick/mortar interfaces is lumped in discontinuous elements, are commonly judged as very effective for accurately representing the interaction between the masonry constituents with an acceptable computational burden. However, they completely disregard the competition between brick/mortar decohesion and mortar cracking, whose role is not negligible, especially in presence of sufficiently thick joints and/or high-strength mortars. In this work, a detailed micro-modeling approach is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of brickworks subjected to in-plane loads. Such an approach allows failure to occur at the brick/mortar interface level and/or inside the mortar layer, while keeping the discrete nature of fracture phenomena. For this purpose, a novel diffuse cohesive-frictional interface approach for joints is presented, able to simulate multiple micro-crack onset and propagation along a-priori unknown paths. Suitable comparisons with a simplified micro-model are provided to validate the proposed approach. Moreover, a good agreement with the experimental outcomes is found, thereby assessing the reliability of the present fracture-based detailed micro-model in the numerical prediction of masonry strength under complex loading conditions

    The use of x-ray CT and MRI in the study of sacroiliac joints in patients with Behcet disease and acute anterior uveitis

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    Objective: It's controversial if Behcet Disease (BD) must be included in the group of seronegative spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Our aim was to establish the prevalence of sacroiliitis (SI) in patients with BD using X-Ray, CT and MRI, in comparison with patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU), that is known to belong to the subgroups of SpA. Methods: We considered, in the period from 04/2006 to 04/2009, 21 consecutive patients with BD, positive for HLA B51 and 28 consecutive patients with AAU, positive for HLA B27. These patients were previously selected by our Rheumatological Ward. Altogether we evaluated 98 sacroiliac joints (SIJ); each side of any patient was graded separately. Results: X-ray of the pelvis showed advanced SI (grade 4) in 14% of the cases in patients with AAU; in BD group only 7% CT showed advanced SI in 14% within AAU patients versus 6-12% of advanced SI (right to left) within BD patients. MR showed 14% of advanced SI (bilateral) within AAU versus 6-11% of advanced SI (right to left) in BD patients. Conclusions: This study supports the trend to not consider BD within the SpA, being the prevalence of SI in BD patients not very different from general population and anyway lower than that observed in patients with AAU. On the other side the prevalence of SI in AAU patients is higher than in BD patients and very similar to the one observed in patients with seronegative arthritis, and anyway high enough to consider joint involvement as an important feature of the disease
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