5,136 research outputs found

    Breaking degeneracy in jet dynamics: multi-epoch joint modelling of the BL Lac PKS 2155-304

    Get PDF
    Supermassive black holes can launch powerful jets which can be some of the most luminous multi-wavelength sources; decades after their discovery their physics and energetics are still poorly understood. The past decade has seen a dramatic improvement in the quality of available data, but despite this improvement the semi-analytical modelling of jets has advanced slowly: simple one-zone models are still the most commonly employed method of interpreting data, in particular for AGN jets. These models can roughly constrain the properties of jets but they cannot unambiguously couple their emission to the launching regions and internal dynamics, which can be probed with simulations. However, simulations are not easily comparable to observations because they cannot yet self-consistently predict spectra. We present an advanced semi-analytical model which accounts for the dynamics of the whole jet, starting from a simplified parametrization of Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics in which the magnetic flux is converted into bulk kinetic energy. To benchmark the model we fit six quasisimultaneous, multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions of the BL Lac PKS 2155-304 obtained by the TANAMI program, and we address the degeneracies inherent to such a complex model by employing a state-of-the-art exploration of parameter space, which so far has been mostly neglected in the study of AGN jets. We find that this new approach is much more effective than a single-epoch fit in providing meaningful constraints on model parameters.Comment: Accepted for publication on MNRA

    Ptychographic reconstruction of attosecond pulses

    Full text link
    We demonstrate a new attosecond pulse reconstruction modality which uses an algorithm that is derived from ptychography. In contrast to other methods, energy and delay sampling are not correlated, and as a result, the number of electron spectra to record is considerably smaller. Together with the robust algorithm, this leads to a more precise and fast convergence of the reconstruction.Comment: 12 pages, 7 figures, the MATLAB code for the method described in this paper is freely available at http://figshare.com/articles/attosecond_Extended_Ptychographyc_Iterative_Engine_ePIE_/160187

    Effects of fuel cetane number on the structure of diesel spray combustion: An accelerated Eulerian stochastic fields method

    Get PDF
    An Eulerian stochastic fields (ESF) method accelerated with the chemistry coordinate mapping (CCM) approach for modelling spray combustion is formulated, and applied to model diesel combustion in a constant volume vessel. In ESF-CCM, the thermodynamic states of the discretised stochastic fields are mapped into a low-dimensional phase space. Integration of the chemical stiff ODEs is performed in the phase space and the results are mapped back to the physical domain. After validating the ESF-CCM, the method is used to investigate the effects of fuel cetane number on the structure of diesel spray combustion. It is shown that, depending of the fuel cetane number, liftoff length is varied, which can lead to a change in combustion mode from classical diesel spray combustion to fuel-lean premixed burned combustion. Spray combustion with a shorter liftoff length exhibits the characteristics of the classical conceptual diesel combustion model proposed by Dec in 1997 (http://dx.doi.org/10.4271/970873), whereas in a case with a lower cetane number the liftoff length is much larger and the spray combustion probably occurs in a fuel-lean-premixed mode of combustion. Nevertheless, the transport budget at the liftoff location shows that stabilisation at all cetane numbers is governed primarily by the auto-ignition process

    Combustion Modeling Approach for the Optimization of a Temperature Controlled Reactivity Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Iso-Octane

    Get PDF
    In this study, an innovative Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) system named Temperature Controlled Reactivity Compression Ignition (TCRCI) is presented, and a numerical optimization of the hardware and the operating parameters is proposed. The studied combustion system aims to reduce the complexity of the Reaction Controlled Compression Ignition engine (RCCI), replacing the direct injection of high reactivity fuel with a heated injection of low reactivity fuel. The combustion system at the actual state of development is presented, and its characteristics are discussed. Hence, it is clear that the performances are highly limited by the actual diesel-derived hardware, and a dedicated model must be designed to progress in the development of this technology. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model suitable for the simulation of this type of combustion is proposed, and it is validated with the available experimental operating conditions. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm was integrated with the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) software to optimize the engine combustion system by means of computational simulation. The operating condition considered has a relatively high load with a fixed fuel mass and compression ratio. The parameters to optimize are the piston bowl geometry, injection parameters and the boosting pressure. The achieved system configuration is characterized by a wider piston bowl and injection angle, and it is able to increase the net efficiency of 3% and to significantly reduce CO emissions from 0.407 to 0.136 mg

    Convective condensation of R134a and R1234ze(E) inside microfin tube

    Get PDF
    Environmental concerns are forcing the replacement of the commonly used refrigerants and finding new fluids is a top priority. The hydro-fluoro-olefin (HFO) R1234ze(E), because of its smaller global warming potential (GWP) and shorter atmospheric lifetime, replaced R134a. Accordingly, for HVAC systems design, a detailed knowledge of the thermo-fluid-dynamic characteristics of the fluids and reliable predictive models are required. To improve the understanding, R134a and R1234ze(E) were employed in convective condensation experiments (saturation temperature Tsat = 35°C, mean quality xm = 0.1~0.9, quality changes Δx = 0.05~0.6, mass flux G = 43~444 kg·m-2s-1) inside a microfin tube (outer diameter D = 9.52 mm, fin number n = 60, fin height H = 0.2 mm). The results were used for two goals: the former is the comparison of the heat transfer features of the two fluids, while the latter aims at testing the performance of prediction models available in the open literature. At the saturation temperature T = 35°C, the two fluids show small differences in the thermal properties so that, as expected, the experiments highlighted a very similar behavior in the typical operating conditions of HVAC systems. In fact, for all the operating conditions marginal differences were observed in the pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient and the flow pattern maps. The issue of prediction reliability, however, is still open. Actually, not all the models achieving good results for R134a show the same performance for R1234ze(E), especially for the pressure drop

    A comprehensive methodology for computational fluid dynamics combustion modeling of industrial diesel engines

    Get PDF
    Combustion control and optimization is of great importance to meet future emission standards in diesel engines: increase in break mean effective pressure at high loads and extension of the operating range of advanced combustion modes seem to be the most promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at the same time. Within this context, detailed computational fluid dynamics tools are required to predict the different involved phenomena such as fuel-air mixing, unsteady diffusion combustion and formation of noxious species. Detailed kinetics, consistent spray models and high quality grids are necessary to perform predictive simulations which can be used either for design or diagnostic purposes. In this work, the authors present a comprehensive approach which was developed using an open-source computational fluid dynamics code. To minimize the pre-processing time and preserve results' accuracy, algorithms for automatic mesh generation of spray-oriented grids were developed and successfully applied to different combustion chamber geometries. The Lagrangian approach was used to describe the spray evolution while the combustion process is modeled employing detailed chemistry and, eventually, considering turbulence-chemistry interaction. The proposed computational fluid dynamics methodology was first assessed considering inert and reacting experiments in a constant-volume vessel, where operating conditions typical of heavy-duty diesel engines were reproduced. Afterward, engine simulations were performed considering two different load points and two piston bowl geometries, respectively. Experimental validation was carried out by comparing computed and experimental data of in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and pollutant emissions (NOx, CO and soot)

    Correlating spectral and timing properties in the evolving jet of the micro blazar MAXI J1836-194

    Get PDF
    During outbursts, the observational properties of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) vary on timescales of days to months. These relatively short timescales make these systems ideal laboratories to probe the coupling between accreting material and outflowing jets as a the accretion rate varies. In particular, the origin of the hard X-ray emission is poorly understood and highly debated. This spectral component, which has a power-law shape, is due to Comptonisation of photons near the black hole, but it is unclear whether it originates in the accretion flow itself, or at the base of the jet, or possibly the interface region between them. In this paper we explore the disk-jet connection by modelling the multi-wavelength emission of MAXI J1836-194 during its 2011 outburst. We combine radio through X-ray spectra, X-ray timing information, and a robust joint-fitting method to better isolate the jet's physical properties. Our results demonstrate that the jet base can produce power-law hard X-ray emission in this system/outburst, provided that its base is fairly compact and that the temperatures of the emitting electrons are sub-relativistic. Because of energetic considerations, our model favours mildly pair-loaded jets carrying at least 20 pairs per proton. Finally, we find that the properties of the X-ray power spectrum are correlated with the jet properties, suggesting that an underlying physical process regulates both.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, accepted for publication on MNRA

    Combining timing characteristics with physical broad-band spectral modelling of black hole X-ray binary GX 339–4

    Get PDF
    GX 339–4 is a black hole X-ray binary that is a key focus of accretion studies, since it goes into outburst roughly every 2–3 yr. Tracking of its radio, infrared (IR), and X-ray flux during multiple outbursts reveals tight broad-band correlations. The radio emission originates in a compact, self-absorbed jet; however, the origin of the X-ray emission is still debated: jet base or corona? We fit 20 quasi-simultaneous radio, IR, optical, and X-ray observations of GX 339–4 covering three separate outbursts in 2005, 2007, 2010–2011, with a composite corona+jet model, where inverse Compton emission from both regions contributes to the X-ray emission. Using a recently proposed identifier of the X-ray variability properties known as power-spectral hue, we attempt to explain both the spectral and evolving timing characteristics, with the model. We find the X-ray spectra are best fit by inverse Compton scattering in a dominant hot corona (kT_e ∼ hundreds of keV). However, radio and IR-optical constraints imply a non-negligible contribution from inverse Compton scattering off hotter electrons (kT_e ≥ 511 keV) in the base of the jets, ranging from a few up to ∼50 per cent of the integrated 3–100 keV flux. We also find that the physical properties of the jet show interesting correlations with the shape of the broad-band X-ray variability of the source, posing intriguing suggestions for the connection between the jet and corona

    Combining timing characteristics with physical broad-band spectral modelling of black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4

    Get PDF
    GX 339-4 is a black hole X-ray binary that is a key focus of accretion studies, since it goes into outburst roughly every 2-3 yr. Tracking of its radio, infrared (IR), and X-ray flux during multiple outbursts reveals tight broad-band correlations. The radio emission originates in a compact, self-absorbed jet; however, the origin of the X-ray emission is still debated: jet base or corona? We fit 20 quasi-simultaneous radio, IR, optical, and X-ray observations of GX 339-4 covering three separate outbursts in 2005, 2007, 2010-2011, with a composite corona+jet model, where inverse Compton emission from both regions contributes to the X-ray emission. Using a recently proposed identifier of the X-ray variability properties known as power-spectral hue, we attempt to explain both the spectral and evolving timing characteristics, with the model. We find the X-ray spectra are best fit by inverse Compton scattering in a dominant hot corona (kT(e) similar to hundreds of keV). However, radio and IR-optical constraints imply a non-negligible contribution from inverse Compton scattering off hotter electrons (kT(e) >= 511 keV) in the base of the jets, ranging from a few up to similar to 50 per cent of the integrated 3-100 keV flux. We also find that the physical properties of the jet show interesting correlations with the shape of the broad-band X-ray variability of the source, posing intriguing suggestions for the connection between the jet and corona
    corecore