230 research outputs found

    Influence of Alignment on the Scattering Properties Atmospheric Mineral Dust

    Get PDF
    We carry out an investigation of the influence of particle alignment on the scattering properties of mineral dust layers. Our modelling indicates that in addition to modifying optical thickness, the alignment can significantly alter the scattering properties, including polarization. Influence of the alignment on remote sensing retrievals is also examined, and it is concluded that satellite and to a lesser extent sun photometry retrievals would be significantly affected

    Multi-object and long-slit spectroscopy of very low mass brown dwarfs in the Orion Nebular Cluster

    Get PDF
    We present the results of an H-and K-band multi-object and long-slit spectroscopic survey of substellar mass candidates in the outer regions of the Orion Nebula Cluster. The spectra were obtained using MOIRCS on the 8.2m Subaru telescope and ISLE on the 1.88m telescope of Okayama Astrophysical Observatory. Eight out of twelve spectra show strong water absorption and we confirm that their effective temperatures are ≤3000K (spectral type ≥M6) from a chi-square fit to synthetic spectra. We plot our sources on an HR diagram overlaid with theoretical isochrones of low-mass objects and identify three new young brown dwarf candidates. One of the three new candidates is a cool object near the brown dwarf and planetary mass boundary. Based on our observations and those of previous studies, we determine the stellar (0.08Peer reviewe

    Near-infrared circular polarization survey in star-forming regions : Correlations and trends

    Get PDF
    We have conducted a systematic near-infrared circular polarization (CP) survey in star-forming regions, covering high-mass, intermediate-mass, and low-mass young stellar objects. All the observations were made using the SIRPOL imaging polarimeter on the Infrared Survey Facility 1.4 m telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. We present the polarization properties of 10 sub-regions in 6 star-forming regions. The polarization patterns, extents, and maximum degrees of linear and circular polarizations are used to determine the prevalence and origin of CP in the star-forming regions. Our results show that the CP pattern is quadrupolar in general, the CP regions are extensive, up to 0.65 pc, the CP degrees are high, up to 20%, and the CP degrees decrease systematically from high- to low-mass young stellar objects. The results are consistent with dichroic extinction mechanisms generating the high degrees of CP in star-forming regions.Peer reviewe

    Computation of Light Scattering in Young Stellar Objects

    Full text link
    A Monte Carlo light scattering code incorporating aligned non-spherical particles is described. The major effects on the flux distribution, linear polarisation and circular polarisation are presented, with emphasis on the application to Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). The need for models with non-spherical particles in order to successfully model polarisation data is reviewed. The ability of this type of model to map magnetic field structure in embedded YSOs is described. The possible application to the question of the origin of biomolecular homochirality via UV circular polarisation in star forming regions is also briefly discussed.Comment: Accepted by The Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer. Replaced version corrects an error in the definition of the sense of Cpol in the published version and other minor errors found at the proof stag

    The extremely red L dwarf ULAS J222711-004547-dominated by dust

    Get PDF
    We report the discovery of a peculiar L dwarf from the United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey Large Area Survey, ULAS J222711-004547. The very red infrared photometry (MKO J-K = 2.79 +/- 0.06, WISEW1-W2 = 0.65 +/- 0.05) of ULAS J222711-004547 makes it one of the reddest brown dwarfs discovered so far. We obtained a moderate resolution spectrum of this target using the XSHOOTER spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope, and we classify it as L7pec, confirming its very red nature. Comparison to theoretical models suggests that the object could be a low-gravity L dwarf with a solar or higher than solar metallicity. Nonetheless, the match of such fits to the spectral energy distribution is rather poor, and this and other less red peculiar L dwarfs pose new challenges for the modelling of ultracool atmospheres, especially to the understanding of the effects of condensates and their sensitivity to gravity and metallicity. We determined the proper motion of ULAS J222711-004547 using the data available in the literature, and we find that its kinematics do not suggest membership of any of the known young associations. We show that applying a simple de-reddening curve to its spectrum allows it to resemble the spectra of the L7 spectroscopic standards without any spectral features that distinguish it as a low-metallicity or low-gravity dwarf. Given the negligible interstellar reddening of the field containing our target, we conclude that the reddening of the spectrum is mostly due to an excess of dust in the photosphere of the target. De-reddening the spectrum using extinction curves for different dust species gives surprisingly good results and suggests a characteristic grain size of similar to 0.5 mu m. We show that by increasing the optical depth, the same extinction curves allow the spectrum of ULAS J222711-004547 to resemble the spectra of unusually blue L dwarfs and even slightly metal-poor L dwarfs. Grains of similar size also yield very good fits when de-reddening other unusually red L dwarfs in the L5-L7.5 range. These results suggest that the diversity in near-infrared colours and spectra seen in late L dwarfs could be due to differences in the optical thickness of the dust cloud deck.Peer reviewe

    Embedded Clusters and the IMF

    Full text link
    Despite valiant efforts over nearly five decades, attempts to determine the IMF over a complete mass range for galactic field stars and in open clusters have proved difficult. Infrared imaging observations of extremely young embedded clusters coupled with Monte Carlo modeling of their luminosity functions are improving this situation and providing important new contributions to our fundamental knowledge of the IMF and its universality in both space and time.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures to appear in "The IMF@50", Kluwer Academic Press, eds. C. Corbelli, F. Palla, & Hans Zinnecke

    A high-sensitivity polarimeter using a ferro-electric liquid crystal modulator

    Get PDF
    We describe the HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument (HIPPI), a polarimeter built at UNSW (The University of New South Wales) Australia and used on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). HIPPI is an aperture polarimeter using a ferro-electric liquid crystal modulator. HIPPI measures the linear polarization of starlight with a sensitivity in fractional polarization of ∼4 × 10−6 on low-polarization objects and a precision of better than 0.01 per cent on highly polarized stars. The detectors have a high dynamic range allowing observations of the brightest stars in the sky as well as much fainter objects. The telescope polarization of the AAT is found to be 48 ± 5 × 10−6 in the g′ bandPeer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    The sub-stellar birth rate from UKIDSS

    Get PDF
    We present a new sample of mid-L to mid-T dwarfs with effective temperatures of 11001700 K selected from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey (LAS) and confirmed with infrared spectra from X-shooter/Very Large Telescope. This effective temperature range is especially sensitive to the formation history of Galactic brown dwarfs and allows us to constrain the form of the sub-stellar birth rate, with sensitivity to differentiate between a flat (stellar like) birth rate and an exponentially declining form. We present the discovery of 63 new L and T dwarfs from the UKIDSS LAS DR7, including the identification of 12 likely unresolved binaries, which form the first complete sub-set from our programme, covering 495 square degrees of sky, complete to J = 18.1. We compare our results for this sub-sample with simulations of differing birth rates for objects of masses 0.10-0.03 M-circle dot and ages 1-10 Gyr. We find that the more extreme birth rates (e. g. a halo type form) can likely be excluded as the true form of the birth rate. In addition, we find that although there is substantial scatter we find a preference for a mass function, with a power-law index a in the range -1 <alpha <0 that is consistent (within the errors) with the studies of late T dwarfs.Peer reviewe

    Methane and ammonia in the near-infrared spectra of late-T dwarfs

    Get PDF
    Analysis of T dwarfs using model atmospheres has been hampered by the absence of reliable line lists for methane and ammonia. Newly computed high-temperature line lists for both of these important molecules are now available, so it is timely to investigate the appearance of the various absorption features in T dwarfs in order to better understand their atmospheres and validate the new line lists. We present high-quality R ∼ 5000 Gemini/NIFS 1.0–2.4 μm spectra of the T8 standard 2MASS 0415−0935 and the T9 standard UGPS 0722−0540. We use these spectra to identify numerous methane and ammonia features not previously seen and we discuss the implications for our understanding of T dwarf atmospheres. Among our results, we find that ammonia is the dominant opacity source between ∼1.233–1.266 μm in UGPS 0722−0540, and we tentatively identify several absorption features in this wavelength range in the T9's spectrum which may be due entirely to ammonia opacity. Our results also suggest that water rather than methane is the dominant opacity source in the red half of the J band of the T8 dwarf. Water appears to be the main absorber in this wavelength region in the T9 dwarf until ∼1.31 μm, when methane starts to dominate.Peer reviewe

    NPARSEC : NTT Parallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool objects. Goals, targets, procedures and first results

    Get PDF
    The discovery and subsequent detailed study of T dwarfs have provided many surprises and pushed the physics and modelling of cool atmospheres in unpredicted directions. Distance is a critical parameter for studies of these objects to determine intrinsic luminosities, test binarity and measure their motion in the Galaxy. We describe a new observational programme to determine distances across the full range of T-dwarf subtypes using the New Technology Telescope (NTT)/SOFI telescope/instrument combination. We present preliminary results for ten objects, five of which represent new distances.Peer reviewe
    corecore