149 research outputs found

    Prognostic Value of Germline Copy Number Variants and Environmental Exposures in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Germline copy number variant (gCNV) has been studied as a genetic determinant for prognosis of several types of cancer, but little is known about how it affects non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) prognosis. We aimed to develop a prognostic nomogram for NSCLC based on gCNVs. Promising gCNVs that are associated with overall survival (OS) of NSCLC were sorted by analyzing the TCGA data and were validated in a small Chinese population. Then the successfully verified gCNVs were determined in a training cohort (n = 570) to develop a prognostic nomogram, and in a validation cohort (n = 465) to validate the nomogram. Thirty-five OS-related gCNVs were sorted and were reduced to 15 predictors by the Lasso regression analysis. Of them, only CNVR395.1 and CNVR2239.1 were confirmed to be associated with OS of NSCLC in the Chinese population. High polygenic risk score (PRS), which was calculated by the hazard effects of CNVR395.1 and CNVR2239.1, exerted a significantly higher death rate in the training cohort (HR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.16–1.74) and validation cohort (HR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.13–1.77) than low PRS. The nomogram incorporating PRS and surrounding factors, achieved admissible concordance indexes of 0.678 (95%CI: 0.664–0.693) and 0.686 (95%CI: 0.670–0.702) in predicting OS in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, and had well-fitted calibration curves. Moreover, an interaction between PRS and asbestos exposure was observed on affecting OS (Pinteraction = 0.042). Our analysis developed a nomogram that achieved an admissible prediction of NSCLC survival, which would be beneficial to the personalized intervention of NSCLC

    Changes in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy at different times among residents in Guangzhou, China

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    BackgroundVaccination as a fundamental pillar of promoting public health and interest is critical to limiting the COVID-19 pandemic. However, many citizens are still hesitant about this epidemic prevention measure. This article aimed to understand the COVID-19 vaccination and hesitancy rates among Guangzhou residents at different points in time as well as to explore the relevant factors that cause vaccination hesitancy.MethodsWe conducted a total of nine cross-sectional surveys by enrolling 12,977 questionnaires among Guangzhou residents through the online survey software called “WenJuanXing” between April 2021 and December 2022, and residents made their choices by judging their willingness to vaccinate. These surveys collected data on the participants' sociodemographic characteristics, vaccination status, vaccine hesitancy, and factors influencing this hesitancy. The Chi-squared test was used for univariate analysis and the multivariate logistic regression model was used to further adjust the influence of the confounding factors to evaluate the main factors affecting the hesitancy of the COVID-19 vaccine at different periods.ResultsOver the course of 2021–2022, a total of 12,977 residents in the study area were surveyed. The vaccine hesitancy rates fluctuated over time. From April to June 2021, the vaccine hesitancy rate decreased from 30% to 9.1% and then increased to 13.7% in November. However, from April to December 2022, the hesitancy rate continued to rise from 13.4% to 30.4%. Vaccination rates, the epidemic waves of COVID-19, and changes in policies may all be possible factors that contributed to these fluctuations in vaccine hesitancy rates. We found statistically significant correlations between factors, such as residence, education, and occupation, and vaccine hesitancy at certain points of time. The results of the surveys in April and June 2021 showed that rural residents showed higher vaccine hesitancy rate than urban residents. Their lower education level was associated with higher vaccine hesitancy. Workers and farmers are more likely to have vaccine hesitancy than people with other occupations. The univariate analysis showed that people with underlying medical conditions and lower perceived health status were more likely to experience vaccine hesitation. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the health status of individuals is the most important factor leading to vaccine hesitancy, and residents' underestimation of domestic risks and overconfidence in personal protection measures were also contributing factors. At different stages, vaccine hesitancy among residents was related to vaccine side effects, safety and efficacy, convenience fluctuation, and various factors.ConclusionIn the present study, we found that vaccine hesitancy did not display a consistent downward trend but it fluctuated over time. Higher education, residing in urban areas, lower perceived disease risk, and concerns about the vaccine's safety and side effects were risk factors for vaccine hesitancy. Implementing appropriate interventions and educational programs tailored to address these risk factors may prove to be effective in enhancing public confidence on vaccination

    A Common Genetic Variant (97906C>A) of DAB2IP/AIP1 Is Associated with an Increased Risk and Early Onset of Lung Cancer in Chinese Males

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    DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein (DAB2IP) is a novel identified tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and facilitates cell apoptosis. One genetic variant in DAB2IP gene was reported to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer recently. Since DAB2IP involves in the development of lung cancer and low expression of DAB2IP are observed in lung cancer, we hypothesized that the variations in DAB2IP gene can increase the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. In a case-control study of 1056 lung cancer cases and 1056 sex and age frequency-matched cancer-free controls, we investigated the association between two common polymorphisms in DAB2IP gene (−1420T>G, rs7042542; 97906C>A, rs1571801) and the risk of lung cancer. We found that compared with the 97906CC genotypes, carriers of variant genotypes (97906AC+AA) had a significant increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04–1.70, P = 0.023) and the number of variant (risk) allele worked in a dose-response manner (Ptrend = 0.0158). Further stratification analysis showed that the risk association was more pronounced in subjects aged less than 60 years old, males, non-smokers, non-drinkers, overweight groups and in those with family cancer history in first or second-degree relatives, and the 97906A interacted with overweight on lung cancer risk. We further found the number of risk alleles (97906A allele) were negatively correlated with early diagnosis age of lung cancer in male patients (P = 0.003). However, no significant association was observed on the −1420T>G polymorphism. Our data suggested that the 97906A variant genotypes are associated with the increased risk and early onset of lung cancer, particularly in males

    Association between the NBS1 E185Q polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>NBS1 is a key DNA repair protein in the homologous recombination repair pathway and a signal modifier in the intra-S phase checkpoint that plays important roles in maintaining genomic stability. The <it>NBS1 </it>8360G>C (<it>Glu185Gln</it>) is one of the most commonly studied polymorphisms of the gene for their association with risk of cancers, but the results are conflicting.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We performed a meta-analysis using 16 eligible case-control studies (including 17 data sets) with a total of 9,734 patients and 10,325 controls to summarize the data on the association between the <it>NBS1 </it>8360G>C (E185Q) polymorphism and cancer risk.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Compared with the common 8360GG genotype, the carriers of variant genotypes (i.e., 8360 GC/CC) had a 1.06-fold elevated risk of cancer (95% CI = 1.00–1.12, <it>P </it>= 0.05) in a dominant genetic model as estimated in a fixed effect model. However, the association was not found in an additive genetic model (CC <it>vs </it>GG) (odds ratio, OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.85–1.13, <it>P </it>= 0.78) nor in a recessive genetic model (CC <it>vs </it>GC +GG) (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.82–1.07, <it>P </it>= 0.36). The effect of the 8360G>C (E185Q) polymorphism was further evaluated in stratification analysis. It was demonstrated that the increased risk of cancer associated with 8360G>C variant genotypes was more pronounced in the Caucasians (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01–1.14, <it>P </it>= 0.03).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our meta-analysis suggests that the <it>NBS1 </it>E185Q variant genotypes (8360 <it>GC/CC</it>) might be associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially in Caucasians.</p

    Association between the Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 +49G > A polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>As a key gene in the immunosurveillance of cell malignancy, Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 is an important negative regulator of T cell activation and proliferation. The CTLA-4 +49G > A polymorphism is one of the most commonly studied polymorphisms in this gene due to its association with cancer risks, but previous results have been conflicting.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We preformed a meta-analysis using 22 eligible case-control studies (including 32 datasets) with a total of 11,273 patients and 13,179 controls to summarize the existing data on the association between the <it>CTLA-4 </it>+49G > A polymorphism and cancer risk.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Compared with the common <it>CTLA-4 </it>+49G > A GG genotype, the carriers of variant genotypes (<it>CTLA-4 </it>+49 GC/CC) had a 1.24-fold elevated risk of cancer (95% CI = 1.18-1.32, <it>P </it>< 0.05) under the dominant genetic model, as estimated using a fixed effect model. The effect of the <it>CTLA-4 </it>+49G > A polymorphism was further evaluated using stratification analysis. In four breast cancer studies, patients with the variant genotypes had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.17-1.48, <it>P </it>< 0.00001). A similar result was found in three skin cancer studies (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.52, <it>P </it>= 0.001). In 26 solid tumor studies, subjects with the variant genotypes had a significantly higher risk of developing solid tumors (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.18-1.33, <it>P </it>< 0.00001) compared with the 6 non-solid tumor studies (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.79-1.48, <it>P </it>= 0.62). Patients with variant genotypes had significantly increased risk of non-epithelial tumors and epithelial tumors, with ORs of 1.23 (95% CI = 1.14-1.32, <it>P </it>< 0.00001) and 1.29 (95% CI = 1.17-1.41, <it>P </it>< 0.00001), respectively. It was also demonstrated that the increased risk of cancer associated with <it>CTLA-4 </it>+49G > A variant genotypes was more pronounced in Caucasians (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.13-1.47, <it>P </it>= 0.0002), Asians (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.16-1.32, <it>P </it>< 0.00001) and Chinese (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.15-1.31, <it>P </it>< 0.00001).</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our meta-analysis suggests that the <it>CTLA-4 </it>+49G > A polymorphism genotypes (GA + AA) might be associated with an increased risk of cancer, especially in Caucasians and Chinese.</p

    Association of respiratory symptoms and lung function with occupation in the multinational Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study

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    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been associated with exposures in the workplace. We aimed to assess the association of respiratory symptoms and lung function with occupation in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from 28 823 adults (≥40 years) in 34 countries. We considered 11 occupations and grouped them by likelihood of exposure to organic dusts, inorganic dusts and fumes. The association of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheeze, dyspnoea, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC with occupation was assessed, per study site, using multivariable regression. These estimates were then meta-analysed. Sensitivity analyses explored differences between sexes and gross national income. Results Overall, working in settings with potentially high exposure to dusts or fumes was associated with respiratory symptoms but not lung function differences. The most common occupation was farming. Compared to people not working in any of the 11 considered occupations, those who were farmers for ≥20 years were more likely to have chronic cough (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.19–1.94), wheeze (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16–1.63) and dyspnoea (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.53–2.20), but not lower FVC (β=0.02 L, 95% CI −0.02–0.06 L) or lower FEV1/FVC (β=0.04%, 95% CI −0.49–0.58%). Some findings differed by sex and gross national income. Conclusion At a population level, the occupational exposures considered in this study do not appear to be major determinants of differences in lung function, although they are associated with more respiratory symptoms. Because not all work settings were included in this study, respiratory surveillance should still be encouraged among high-risk dusty and fume job workers, especially in low- and middle-income countries.publishedVersio

    Cohort Profile: Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study

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    The Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study was established to assess the prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction, a key characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and its risk factors in adults (≥40 years) from general populations across the world. The baseline study was conducted between 2003 and 2016, in 41 sites across Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, the Caribbean and Oceania, and collected high-quality pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry from 28 828 participants. The follow-up study was conducted between 2019 and 2021, in 18 sites across Africa, Asia, Europe and the Caribbean. At baseline, there were in these sites 12 502 participants with high-quality spirometry. A total of 6452 were followed up, with 5936 completing the study core questionnaire. Of these, 4044 also provided high-quality pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry. On both occasions, the core questionnaire covered information on respiratory symptoms, doctor diagnoses, health care use, medication use and ealth status, as well as potential risk factors. Information on occupation, environmental exposures and diet was also collected
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