142,694 research outputs found

    Yingjin Zhang, ed. Cinema and urban culture in Shanghai : 1922-1943

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    Galaxy Ecosystems: gas contents, inflows and outflows

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    We use a set of observational data for galaxy cold gas mass fraction and gas phase metallicity to constrain the content, inflow and outflow of gas in central galaxies hosted by halos with masses between 1011M10^{11} M_{\odot} to 1012M10^{12} M_{\odot}. The gas contents in high redshift galaxies are obtained by combining the empirical star formation histories of Lu et al. (2014) and star formation models that relate star formation rate with the cold gas mass in galaxies. We find that the total baryon mass in low-mass galaxies is always much less than the universal baryon mass fraction since z=2z = 2, regardless of star formation model adopted. The data for the evolution of the gas phase metallicity require net metal outflow at z2z\lesssim 2, and the metal loading factor is constrained to be about 0.010.01, or about 60%60\% of the metal yield. Based on the assumption that galactic outflow is more enriched in metal than both the interstellar medium and the material ejected at earlier epochs, we are able to put stringent constraints on the upper limits for both the net accretion rate and the net mass outflow rate. The upper limits strongly suggest that the evolution of the gas phase metallicity and gas mass fraction for low-mass galaxies at z<2z < 2 is not compatible with strong outflow. We speculate that the low star formation efficiency of low-mass galaxies is owing to some preventative processes that prevent gas from accreting into galaxies in the first place.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figures, submitted to MNRA

    Vacua and Exact Solutions in Lower-DD Limits of EGB

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    We consider the action principles that are the lower dimensional limits of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity {\it via} the Kaluza-Klein route. We study the vacua and obtain some exact solutions. We find that the reality condition of the theories may select one vacuum over the other from the two vacua that typically arise in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We obtain exact black hole and cosmological solutions carrying scalar hair, including scalar hairy BTZ black holes with both mass and angular momentum turned on. We also discuss the holographic central charges in the asymptotic AdS backgrounds.Comment: Latex, 19 page

    Exact Black Hole Formation in Asymptotically (A)dS and Flat Spacetimes

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    We consider four-dimensional Einstein gravity minimally coupled to a dilaton scalar field with a supergravity-inspired scalar potential. We obtain an exact time-dependent spherically symmetric solution describing gravitational collapse to a static scalar-hairy black hole. The solution can be asymptotically AdS, flat or dS depending on the value of the cosmological constant parameter Λ\Lambda in the potential. As the advanced time uu increases, the spacetime reaches equilibrium in an exponential fashion, i.e., eu/u0e^{-u/u_0} with u01/(α4M0)1/3u_0\sim1/(\alpha^4 M_0)^{1/3}, where M0M_0 is the mass of the final black hole and α\alpha is the second parameter in the potential. Similar to the Vaidya solution, at u=0u=0, the spacetime can be matched to an (A)dS or flat vacuum except that at the origin a naked singularity may occur. Moreover, a limiting case of our solution with α=0\alpha=0 gives rise to an (A)dS generalization of the Roberts solution, thereby making it relevant to critical phenomena. Our results provide a new model for investigating formation of real life black holes with Λ0\Lambda \geq 0. For Λ<0\Lambda<0, it can be instead used to study non-equilibrium thermalization of certain strongly-coupled field theory.Comment: Latex, 8 pages, typos corrected and references adde