772 research outputs found

    Charged Particle Tracking in Real-Time Using a Full-Mesh Data Delivery Architecture and Associative Memory Techniques

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    We present a flexible and scalable approach to address the challenges of charged particle track reconstruction in real-time event filters (Level-1 triggers) in collider physics experiments. The method described here is based on a full-mesh architecture for data distribution and relies on the Associative Memory approach to implement a pattern recognition algorithm that quickly identifies and organizes hits associated to trajectories of particles originating from particle collisions. We describe a successful implementation of a demonstration system composed of several innovative hardware and algorithmic elements. The implementation of a full-size system relies on the assumption that an Associative Memory device with the sufficient pattern density becomes available in the future, either through a dedicated ASIC or a modern FPGA. We demonstrate excellent performance in terms of track reconstruction efficiency, purity, momentum resolution, and processing time measured with data from a simulated LHC-like tracking detector

    Insulated molecular wires: inhibiting orthogonal contacts in metal complex based molecular junctions

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    Metal complexes are receiving increased attention as molecular wires in fundamental studies of the transport properties of metal|molecule|metal junctions. In this context we report the single-molecule conductance of a systematic series of d8 square-planar platinum(II) trans-bis(alkynyl) complexes with terminal trimethylsilylethynyl (C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3) contacting groups, e.g. trans-Pt{C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC6H4C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3}2(PR3)2 (R = Ph or Et), using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments in solution and theoretical calculations using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The measured conductance values of the complexes (ca. 3‚Äď5 √ó 10‚ąí5G0) are commensurate with similarly structured all-organic oligo(phenylene ethynylene) and oligo(yne) compounds. Based on conductance and break-off distance data, we demonstrate that a PPh3 supporting ligand in the platinum complexes can provide an alternative contact point for the STM tip in the molecular junctions, orthogonal to the terminal C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3 group. The attachment of hexyloxy side chains to the diethynylbenzene ligands, e.g. trans-Pt{C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC6H2(Ohex)2C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CSiMe3}2(PPh3)2 (Ohex = OC6H13), hinders contact of the STM tip to the PPh3 groups and effectively insulates the molecule, allowing the conductance through the full length of the backbone to be reliably measured. The use of trialkylphosphine (PEt3), rather than triarylphosphine (PPh3), ancillary ligands at platinum also eliminates these orthogonal contacts. These results have significant implications for the future design of organometallic complexes for studies in molecular junctions

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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