22,010 research outputs found

    A particulate basis for a lattice-gas model of amphiphilic fluids

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    We show that the flux-field expansion derived by Boghosian and Coveney for the Rothman-Keller immiscible fluid model can be derived in a simpler and more general way in terms of the completely symmetric tensor kernels introduced by those authors. Using this generalised flux-field expansion we show that the more complex amphiphilic model of Boghosian Coveney and Emerton can also be derived from an underlying model of particle interactions. The consequences of this derivation are discussed in the context of previous equilibrium Ising-like lattice models and other non-equilibrium mesoscale models.Comment: To appear in Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. (Proceedings of the Xth International Conference on Discrete Simulation of Fluid Dynamics.

    From Dirac to Diffusion: Decoherence in Quantum Lattice Gases

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    We describe a model for the interaction of the internal (spin) degree of freedom of a quantum lattice-gas particle with an environmental bath. We impose the constraints that the particle-bath interaction be fixed, while the state of the bath is random, and that the effect of the particle-bath interaction be parity invariant. The condition of parity invariance defines a subgroup of the unitary group of actions on the spin degree of freedom and the bath. We derive a general constraint on the Lie algebra of the unitary group which defines this subgroup, and hence guarantees parity invariance of the particle-bath interaction. We show that generalizing the quantum lattice gas in this way produces a model having both classical and quantum discrete random walks as different limits. We present preliminary simulation results illustrating the intermediate behavior in the presence of weak quantum noise.Comment: To appear in QI

    High altitude gust acceleration environment as experienced by a supersonic airplane

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    High altitude turbulence experienced at supersonic speeds is described in terms of gust accelerations measured on the YF-12A airplane. The data were obtained during 90 flights at altitudes above 12.2 kilometers (40,000 feet). Subjective turbulence intensity ratings were obtained from air crew members. The air crew often rated given gust accelerations as being more intense during high altitude supersonic flight than during low altitude subsonic flight. The portion of flight distance in turbulence ranged from 6 percent to 8 percent at altitudes between 12.2 kilometers and 16.8 kilometers (40,000 feet and 55,000 feet) to less than 1 percent at altitudes above 18.3 kilometers (60,000 feet). The amount of turbulence varied with season, increasing by a factor of 3 or more from summer to winter. Given values of gust acceleration were less frequent, on the basis of distance traveled, for supersonic flight of the YF-12A airplane at altitudes above 12.2 kilometers (40,000 feet) than for subsonic flight of a jet passenger airplane at altitudes below 12.2 kilometers (40,000 feet). The median thickness of high altitude turbulence patches was less than 400 meters (1300 feet); the median length was less than 16 kilometers (10 miles). The distribution of the patch dimensions tended to be log normal

    Common Codebook Millimeter Wave Beam Design: Designing Beams for Both Sounding and Communication with Uniform Planar Arrays

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    Fifth generation (5G) wireless networks are expected to utilize wide bandwidths available at millimeter wave (mmWave) frequencies for enhancing system throughput. However, the unfavorable channel conditions of mmWave links, e.g., higher path loss and attenuation due to atmospheric gases or water vapor, hinder reliable communications. To compensate for these severe losses, it is essential to have a multitude of antennas to generate sharp and strong beams for directional transmission. In this paper, we consider mmWave systems using uniform planar array (UPA) antennas, which effectively place more antennas on a two-dimensional grid. A hybrid beamforming setup is also considered to generate beams by combining a multitude of antennas using only a few radio frequency chains. We focus on designing a set of transmit beamformers generating beams adapted to the directional characteristics of mmWave links assuming a UPA and hybrid beamforming. We first define ideal beam patterns for UPA structures. Each beamformer is constructed to minimize the mean squared error from the corresponding ideal beam pattern. Simulation results verify that the proposed codebooks enhance beamforming reliability and data rate in mmWave systems.Comment: 14 pages, 10 figure