3,828 research outputs found

    Measurements and TCAD simulation of novel ATLAS planar pixel detector structures for the HL-LHC upgrade

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    The LHC accelerator complex will be upgraded between 2020-2022, to the High-Luminosity-LHC, to considerably increase statistics for the various physics analyses. To operate under these challenging new conditions, and maintain excellent performance in track reconstruction and vertex location, the ATLAS pixel detector must be substantially upgraded and a full replacement is expected. Processing techniques for novel pixel designs are optimised through characterisation of test structures in a clean room and also through simulations with Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). A method to study non-perpendicular tracks through a pixel device is discussed. Comparison of TCAD simulations with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) measurements to investigate the doping profile of structures and validate the simulation process is also presented.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures, PIXEL201

    Theory of Local Dynamical Magnetic Susceptibilities from the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green Function Method

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    Within the framework of time-dependent density functional theory combined with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function formalism, we present a real space methodology to investigate dynamical magnetic excitations from first-principles. We set forth a scheme which enables one to deduce the correct effective Coulomb potential needed to preserve the spin-invariance signature in the dynamical susceptibilities, i.e. the Goldstone mode. We use our approach to explore the spin dynamics of 3d adatoms and different dimers deposited on a Cu(001) with emphasis on their decay to particle-hole pairs.Comment: 32 pages (preprint), 6 figures, one tabl

    Magnetic adatom induced skyrmion-like spin texture in surface electron waves

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    When a foreign atom is placed on a surface of a metal, the surrounding sea of electrons responds screening the additional charge leading to oscillations or ripples. On surfaces, those electrons are sometimes confined to two-dimensional surface states, whose spin-degeneracy is lifted due to the Rashba effect arising from the spin-orbit interaction of electrons and the inversion asymmetric environment. It is believed that at least for a single adatom scanning tunneling microscopy measurements are insensitive to the Rashba splitting i.e. no signatures in the charge oscillations will be observed. Resting on scattering theory, we demonstrate that, if magnetic, one single adatom is enough to visualize the presence of the Rashba effect in terms of an induced spin-magnetization of the surrounding electrons exhibiting a twisted spin texture described as superposition of two skyrmionic waves of opposite chirality.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, accepted in Phys. Rev. Letter

    Thermally activated magnetization reversal in monoatomic magnetic chains on surfaces studied by classical atomistic spin-dynamics simulations

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    We analyze the spontaneous magnetization reversal of supported monoatomic chains of finite length due to thermal fluctuations via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations. Our approach is based on the integration of the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion of a classical spin Hamiltonian at the presence of stochastic forces. The associated magnetization lifetime is found to obey an Arrhenius law with an activation barrier equal to the domain wall energy in the chain. For chains longer than one domain-wall width, the reversal is initiated by nucleation of a reversed magnetization domain primarily at the chain edge followed by a subsequent propagation of the domain wall to the other edge in a random-walk fashion. This results in a linear dependence of the lifetime on the chain length, if the magnetization correlation length is not exceeded. We studied chains of uniaxial and tri-axial anisotropy and found that a tri-axial anisotropy leads to a reduction of the magnetization lifetime due to a higher reversal attempt rate, even though the activation barrier is not changed.Comment: 2nd version contains some improvements and new Appendi

    Spin Orbit Coupling and Spin Waves in Ultrathin Ferromagnets: The Spin Wave Rashba Effect

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    We present theoretical studies of the influence of spin orbit coupling on the spin wave excitations of the Fe monolayer and bilayer on the W(110) surface. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is active in such films, by virtue of the absence of reflection symmetry in the plane of the film. When the magnetization is in plane, this leads to a linear term in the spin wave dispersion relation for propagation across the magnetization. The dispersion relation thus assumes a form similar to that of an energy band of an electron trapped on a semiconductor surfaces with Rashba coupling active. We also show SPEELS response functions that illustrate the role of spin orbit coupling in such measurements. In addition to the modifications of the dispersion relations for spin waves, the presence of spin orbit coupling in the W substrate leads to a substantial increase in the linewidth of the spin wave modes. The formalism we have developed applies to a wide range of systems, and the particular system explored in the numerical calculations provides us with an illustration of phenomena which will be present in other ultrathin ferromagnet/substrate combinations

    Theory of real space imaging of Fermi surfaces

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    A scanning tunneling microscope can be used to visualize in real space Fermi surfaces with buried impurities far below substrates acting as local probes. A theory describing this feature is developed based on the stationary phase approximation. It is demonstrated how a Fermi surface of a material acts as a mirror focusing electrons that scatter at hidden impurities.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figure

    Non-collinear Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method: Application to 3d nanostructures on Ni(001)

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    Magnetic nanostructures on non-magnetic or magnetic substrates have attracted strong attention due to the development of new experimental methods with atomic resolution. Motivated by this progress we have extended the full-potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green function method to treat non-collinear magnetic nanostructures on surfaces. We focus on magnetic 3d impurity nanoclusters, sitting as adatoms on or in the first surface layer on Ni(001), and investigate the size and orientation of the local moments and moreover the stabilization of non-collinear magnetic solutions. While clusters of Fe, Co, Ni atoms are magnetically collinear, non-collinear magnetic coupling is expected for Cr and Mn clusters on surfaces of elemental ferromagnets. The origin of frustration is the competition of the antiferromagnetic exchange coupling among the Cr or Mn atoms with the antiferromagnetic (for Cr) or ferromagnetic (for Mn) exchange coupling between the impurities and the substrate. We find that Cr and Mn first-neighbouring dimers and a Mn trimer on Ni(001) show non-collinear behavior nearly degenerate with the most stable collinear configuration. Increasing the distance between the dimer atoms leads to a collinear behavior, similar to the one of the single impurities. Finally, we compare some of the non-collinear {\it ab-initio} results to those obtained within a classical Heisenberg model, where the exchange constants are fitted to total energies of the collinear states; the agreement is surprisingly good.Comment: 11 page

    Simulation of guard ring influence on the performance of ATLAS pixel detectors for inner layer replacement

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    Electric field magnitude and depletion in the bulk of silicon pixel detectors, which influence its breakdown behaviour, was studied using finite-element method to solve the drift-diffusion equation coupled to Poisson's equation in a simplified two dimensional model of the ATLAS pixel sensor. Based on this model, the number of guard rings and dead edges width were modified to investigate their influence on the detector's depletion at the edge and on its internal electrical field distribution. Final ly, the 3 level model was implemented into the simulation to study the behaviour of such detector under different level of irradiation

    Lifetime reduction of surface states at Cu, Ag and Au(111) caused by impurity scattering

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    We present density-functional results on the lifetime of the (111) surface state of the noble metals. We consider scattering on the Fermi surface caused by impurity atoms belonging to the 3d and 4sp series. The results are analyzed with respect to film thickness and with respect to separation of scattering into bulk or into surface states. While for impurities in the surface layer the overall trends are similar to the long-known bulk-state scattering, for adatom-induced scattering we find a surprising behavior with respect to the adatom atomic number. A plateau emerges in the scattering rate of the 3d adatoms, instead of a peak characteristic of the d resonance. Additionally, the scattering rate of 4sp adatoms changes in a zig-zag pattern, contrary to a smooth parabolic increase following Linde's rule that is observed in bulk. We interpret these results in terms of the weaker charge-screening and of interference effects induced by the lowering of symmetry at the surface
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