110 research outputs found

    PCP6: OPIOID ANALGESICS USE IN PATIENTS WITH NONMALIGNANT PAIN: SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE COMPARISON GROUP

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    Complex circular subsidence structures in tephra deposited on large blocks of ice: Varða tuff cone, Öræfajökull, Iceland

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    Several broadly circular structures up to 16 m in diameter, into which higher strata have sagged and locally collapsed, are present in a tephra outcrop on southwest Öræfajökull, southern Iceland. The tephra was sourced in a nearby basaltic tuff cone at Varða. The structures have not previously been described in tuff cones, and they probably formed by the melting out of large buried blocks of ice emplaced during a preceding jökulhlaup that may have been triggered by a subglacial eruption within the Öræfajökull ice cap. They are named ice-melt subsidence structures, and they are analogous to kettle holes that are commonly found in proglacial sandurs and some lahars sourced in ice-clad volcanoes. The internal structure is better exposed in the Varða examples because of an absence of fluvial infilling and reworking, and erosion of the outcrop to reveal the deeper geometry. The ice-melt subsidence structures at Varða are a proxy for buried ice. They are the only known evidence for a subglacial eruption and associated jökulhlaup that created the ice blocks. The recognition of such structures elsewhere will be useful in reconstructing more complete regional volcanic histories as well as for identifying ice-proximal settings during palaeoenvironmental investigations

    Destruction of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Midbrain by 6-Hydroxydopamine Decreases Hippocampal Cell Proliferation in Rats: Reversal by Fluoxetine

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    Background Non-motor symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) precede the onset of the motor symptoms. Although these symptoms do not respond to pharmacological dopamine replacement therapy, their precise pathological mechanisms are currently unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion to the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), which represents a model of long-term dopaminergic neurotoxicity, could affect cell proliferation in the adult rat brain. Furthermore, we examined the effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine and the selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor maprotiline on the reduction in cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) by the unilateral 6-OHDA lesion. Methodology/Principal Findings A single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the rat SNc resulted in an almost complete loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNc, as well as in reductions of TH-positive cells and fibers in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). On the other hand, an injection of vehicle alone showed no overt change in TH immunoreactivity. A unilateral 6-OHDA lesion to SNc significantly decreased cell proliferation in the SGZ ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA lesion, but not in the contralateral SGZ or the subventricular zone (SVZ), of rats. Furthermore, subchronic (14 days) administration of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day), but not maprotiline significantly attenuated the reduction in cell proliferation in the SGZ by unilateral 6-OHDA lesion. Conclusions/Significance The present study suggests that cell proliferation in the SGZ of the dentate gyrus might be, in part, under dopaminergic control by SNc and VTA, and that subchronic administration of fluoxetine reversed the reduction in cell proliferation in the SGZ by 6-OHDA. Therefore, SSRIs such as fluoxetine might be potential therapeutic drugs for non-motor symptoms as well as motor symptoms in patients with PD, which might be associated with the reduction in cell proliferation in the SGZ

    What is the role of the film viewer? The effects of narrative comprehension and viewing task on gaze control in film

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    Film is ubiquitous, but the processes that guide viewers' attention while viewing film narratives are poorly understood. In fact, many film theorists and practitioners disagree on whether the film stimulus (bottom-up) or the viewer (top-down) is more important in determining how we watch movies. Reading research has shown a strong connection between eye movements and comprehension, and scene perception studies have shown strong effects of viewing tasks on eye movements, but such idiosyncratic top-down control of gaze in film would be anathema to the universal control mainstream filmmakers typically aim for. Thus, in two experiments we tested whether the eye movements and comprehension relationship similarly held in a classic film example, the famous opening scene of Orson Welles' Touch of Evil (Welles & Zugsmith, Touch of Evil, 1958). Comprehension differences were compared with more volitionally controlled task-based effects on eye movements. To investigate the effects of comprehension on eye movements during film viewing, we manipulated viewers' comprehension by starting participants at different points in a film, and then tracked their eyes. Overall, the manipulation created large differences in comprehension, but only produced modest differences in eye movements. To amplify top-down effects on eye movements, a task manipulation was designed to prioritize peripheral scene features: a map task. This task manipulation created large differences in eye movements when compared to participants freely viewing the clip for comprehension. Thus, to allow for strong, volitional top-down control of eye movements in film, task manipulations need to make features that are important to narrative comprehension irrelevant to the viewing task. The evidence provided by this experimental case study suggests that filmmakers' belief in their ability to create systematic gaze behavior across viewers is confirmed, but that this does not indicate universally similar comprehension of the film narrative

    Predation on an Upper Trophic Marine Predator, the Steller Sea Lion: Evaluating High Juvenile Mortality in a Density Dependent Conceptual Framework

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    The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) – the largest of the eared seals – has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, followed by the recent recovery of juvenile survival to pre-decline rates. However, these hypotheses have not been tested by direct means, and causes underlying past and present population trajectories remain unresolved and controversial. We determined post-weaning juvenile survival and causes of mortality using data received post-mortem via satellite from telemetry transmitters implanted into 36 juvenile Steller sea lions from 2005 through 2011. Data show high post-weaning mortality by predation in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. To evaluate the impact of such high levels of predation, we developed a conceptual framework to integrate density dependent with density independent effects on vital rates and population trajectories. Our data and model do not support the hypothesized recent recovery of juvenile survival rates and reduced natality. Instead, our data demonstrate continued low juvenile survival in the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords region of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results on contemporary predation rates combined with the density dependent conceptual framework suggest predation on juvenile sea lions as the largest impediment to recovery of the species in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. The framework also highlights the necessity for demographic models based on age-structured census data to incorporate the differential impact of predation on multiple vital rates

    Experimental study of dense pyroclastic density currents using sustained, gas-fluidized granular flows

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    © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. We present the results of laboratory experiments on the behaviour of sustained, dense granular flows in a horizontal flume, in which high-gas pore pressure was maintained throughout the flow duration by continuous injection of gas through the flume base. The flows were fed by a sustained (0.5–30 s) supply of fine (75 ± 15 μm) particles from a hopper; the falling particles impacted an impingement surface at concentrations of ~3 to 45 %, where they densified rapidly to generate horizontally moving, dense granular flows. When the gas supplied through the flume base was below the minimum fluidization velocity of the particles (i.e. aerated flow conditions), three flow phases were identified: (i) an initial dilute spray of particles travelling at 1–2 m s−1, followed by (ii) a dense granular flow travelling at 0.5–1 m s−1, then by (iii) sustained aggradation of the deposit by a prolonged succession of thin flow pulses. The maximum runout of the phase 2 flow was linearly dependent on the initial mass flux, and the frontal velocity had a square-root dependence on mass flux. The frontal propagation speed during phase 3 had a linear relationship with mass flux. The total mass of particles released had no significant control on either flow velocity or runout in any of the phases. High-frequency flow unsteadiness during phase 3 generated deposit architectures with progradational and retrogradational packages and multiple internal erosive contacts. When the gas supplied through the flume base was equal to the minimum fluidization velocity of the particles (i.e. fluidized flow conditions), the flows remained within phase 2 for their entire runout, no deposit formed and the particles ran off the end of the flume. Sustained granular flows differ significantly from instantaneous flows generated by lock-exchange mechanisms, in that the sustained flows generate (by prolonged progressive aggradation) deposits that are much thicker than the flowing layer of particles at any given moment. The experiments offer a first attempt to investigate the physics of the sustained pyroclastic flows that generate thick, voluminous ignimbrites

    Novel markers for differentiation of lobular and ductal invasive breast carcinomas by laser microdissection and microarray analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas (IDC and ILC) are the most common histological types of breast cancer. Clinical follow-up data and metastatic patterns suggest that the development and progression of these tumors are different. The aim of our study was to identify gene expression profiles of IDC and ILC in relation to normal breast epithelial cells. METHODS: We examined 30 samples (normal ductal and lobular cells from 10 patients, IDC cells from 5 patients, ILC cells from 5 patients) microdissected from cryosections of ten mastectomy specimens from postmenopausal patients. Fifty nanograms of total RNA were amplified and labeled by PCR and in vitro transcription. Samples were analysed upon Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. The expression of seven differentially expressed genes (CDH1, EMP1, DDR1, DVL1, KRT5, KRT6, KRT17) was verified by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. Expression of ASPN mRNA was validated by in situ hybridization on frozen sections, and CTHRC1, ASPN and COL3A1 were tested by PCR. RESULTS: Using GCOS pairwise comparison algorithm and rank products we have identified 84 named genes common to ILC versus normal cell types, 74 named genes common to IDC versus normal cell types, 78 named genes differentially expressed between normal ductal and lobular cells, and 28 named genes between IDC and ILC. Genes distinguishing between IDC and ILC are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, TGF-beta and Wnt signaling. These changes were present in both tumor types but appeared to be more prominent in ILC. Immunohistochemistry for several novel markers (EMP1, DVL1, DDR1) distinguished large sets of IDC from ILC. CONCLUSION: IDC and ILC can be differentiated both at the gene and protein levels. In this study we report two candidate genes, asporin (ASPN) and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) which might be significant in breast carcinogenesis. Besides E-cadherin, the proteins validated on tissue microarrays (EMP1, DVL1, DDR1) may represent novel immunohistochemical markers helpful in distinguishing between IDC and ILC. Further studies with larger sets of patients are needed to verify the gene expression profiles of various histological types of breast cancer in order to determine molecular subclassifications, prognosis and the optimum treatment strategies

    Textural and geochemical constraints on andesitic plug emplacement prior to the 2004–2010 vulcanian explosions at Galeras volcano, Colombia

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    Hazardous sequences of vulcanian explosions are thought to result from the repeated emplacement and destruction of degassed, highly crystalline magma plugs in the shallow conduit of arc volcanoes. The processes governing the timing and magnitude of these explosions are thought to be related to magma ascent rate and efficiency of degassing and crystallisation. We study a rare suite of time-constrained ballistic bombs from the 2004–2010 period of activity of Galeras volcano to reconstruct magma plug architecture prior to six individual vulcanian explosions. We find that each plug was vertically stratified with respect to crystallinity, vesicularity and melt volatile content, melt composition and viscosity. We interpret this structure as resulting from multiple bubble nucleation events and degassing-driven crystallisation during multi-step ascent of the magma forming the plug, followed by spatially variable crystallisation within the plug under contrasting conditions of effective undercooling created by degassing. We propose that the shallow conduit evolved from more open degassing conditions during 2004–2008 to more closed conditions during 2009–2010. This resulted in explosions becoming smaller and less frequent over time during 2004–2008, then larger and more frequent over time during 2009–2010. This evolution was controlled by changing average ascent rates and is recorded by systematic changes in plagioclase microlite textures. Our results suggest that small volume vulcanian explosions (~ 105 m3) should generally be associated with longer repose times (hundreds of days) and produce ballistics characterised by small numbers of large, prismatic plagioclase microlites. Larger volume vulcanian explosions (~ 106 m3) should be associated with shorter repose times (tens of days) and produce ballistics characterised by high numbers of small, more tabular plagioclase microlites

    The genetic epidemiology of joint shape and the development of osteoarthritis

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    Congruent, low-friction relative movement between the articulating elements of a synovial joint is an essential pre-requisite for sustained, efficient, function. Where disorders of joint formation or maintenance exist, mechanical overloading and osteoarthritis (OA) follow. The heritable component of OA accounts for ~ 50% of susceptible risk. Although almost 100 genetic risk loci for OA have now been identified, and the epidemiological relationship between joint development, joint shape and osteoarthritis is well established, we still have only a limited understanding of the contribution that genetic variation makes to joint shape and how this modulates OA risk. In this article, a brief overview of synovial joint development and its genetic regulation is followed by a review of current knowledge on the genetic epidemiology of established joint shape disorders and common shape variation. A summary of current genetic epidemiology of OA is also given, together with current evidence on the genetic overlap between shape variation and OA. Finally, the established genetic risk loci for both joint shape and osteoarthritis are discussed
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