396 research outputs found

    LEP Couplers...a Troubled Story of Success

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    LEP couplers were a success. 288 couplers have been used for years in LEP without even one serious failure. I will briefly resume the history of the development, the problems that appeared during tests and how all these problems were solved , turning the project into a brilliant success

    LHC Collimators Low Level Control System

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    The low level control system (LLCS) of the LHC collimators is responsible for accurate synchronization of 500 axes of motion at microsecond level. Stepping motors are used in open loop ensuring a high level of repeatability of the position. In addition, a position survey system based on Resolver and LVDT sensors and operating at approximately 100 Hz, verifies in real-time the position of each axis with some tens of micrometers accuracy with respect to the expected position. The LLCS is characterized by several challenging requirements such as high reliability, redundancy, strict timing constraints and compactness of the low level hardware because of the limited space available in the racks underground. The National Instruments PXI platform has been proposed and evaluated as real-time low level hardware. In this paper the architecture of the LHC collimators LLCS is presented. The solution adopted for implementing motion control and positioning sensors reading on the PXI platform are detailed

    Fatty acid neutral losses observed in tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation allows regiochemical assignment of sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols

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    A full characterization of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) in the lipid extract of spinach leaves has been achieved using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry (MS). Low-energy collision-induced dissociation tandem MS (MS/MS) of the deprotonated species [M - H]- was exploited for a detailed study of sulfolipid fragmentation. Losses of neutral fatty acids from the acyl side chains (i.e. [M - H - RCOOH]-) were found to prevail over ketene losses ([M - H - R'CHCO]-) or carboxylates of long-chain fatty acids ([RCOO]-), as expected for gas-phase acidity of SQDG ions. A new concerted mechanism for RCOOH elimination, based on a charge-remote fragmentation, is proposed. The preferential loss of a fatty acids molecule from the sn-1 position (i.e. [M - H - R1COOH]-) of the glycerol backbone, most likely due to kinetic control of the gas-phase fragmentation process, was exploited for the regiochemical assignment of the investigated sulfolipids. As a result, 24 SQDGs were detected and identified in the lipid extract of spinach leaves, their number and variety being unprecedented in the field of plant sulfolipids. Moreover, the prevailing presence of a palmitic acyl chain (16:0) on the glycerol sn-2 position of spinach SQDGs suggests a prokaryotic or chloroplastic path as the main route for their biosynthesis

    Wide Band Gap Devices and Their Application in Power Electronics

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    Power electronic systems have a great impact on modern society. Their applications target a more sustainable future by minimizing the negative impacts of industrialization on the environment, such as global warming effects and greenhouse gas emission. Power devices based on wide band gap (WBG) material have the potential to deliver a paradigm shift in regard to energy efficiency and working with respect to the devices based on mature silicon (Si). Gallium nitride (GaN) and silicon carbide (SiC) have been treated as one of the most promising WBG materials that allow the performance limits of matured Si switching devices to be significantly exceeded. WBG-based power devices enable fast switching with lower power losses at higher switching frequency and hence, allow the development of high power density and high efficiency power converters. This paper reviews popular SiC and GaN power devices, discusses the associated merits and challenges, and finally their applications in power electronics
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