980 research outputs found

    El derecho de la moda en Espa√Īa desde una visi√≥n globalizada

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    La investigaci√≥n sobre el Derecho de la moda o Fashion Law parte de un inter√©s que transciende lo meramente est√©tico para adentrarse en un entramado normativo caracterizado principalmente por su transversalidad. El comienzo de su estudio carec√≠a de una bibliograf√≠a s√≥lida que profundizase m√°s all√° de una t√≠mida presentaci√≥n de la materia, por lo que su estudio parte de libros y publicaciones de otros pa√≠ses, art√≠culos, blogs, normativa, doctrina y jurisprudencia, hasta ser part√≠cipes y espectadores de su evoluci√≥n por medio de publicaciones, seminarios, cursos y un inter√©s constante en su desarrollo. En la actualidad, el Derecho de la moda se encuentra reconocido en nuestro pa√≠s, aunque no est√© dotado de un tratamiento especializado, prueba de ello es la existencia del C√≥digo de la Moda, en el cual podemos encontrar las principales normas aplicables a la industria. Adem√°s de ello, podemos considerarlo una necesidad b√°sica con cabida constitucional y en relaci√≥n constante y directa con otros derechos fundamentales. Dentro del sector de la moda suscitan un gran inter√©s las v√≠as de protecci√≥n de sus creaciones, las cuales podemos encontrar, en las ramas especializadas del Derecho mercantil de la Propiedad Industrial e Intelectual, espec√≠ficamente en las figuras jur√≠dicas del dise√Īo industrial, patente, modelo de utilidad, marcas y derecho de autor, las cuales podr√°n convivir en un mismo producto siempre que se cumplan los requisitos especificados en la normativa vigente para ello. Como se puede comprobar las medidas de protecci√≥n no escasean, pero, su aplicaci√≥n al sector, en ocasiones, resulta compleja debido a carencias normativas, vac√≠os conceptuales y unos criterios doctrinales y jurisprudenciales desarmonizados. Aun as√≠, los dise√Īos de moda que cuenten con las notas caracter√≠sticas de novedad y car√°cter singular podr√°n obtener la protecci√≥n del dise√Īo industrial, la cual puede ser acumulada a la de patente o modelo de utilidad si incorporando una invenci√≥n su apariencia no viene exclusivamente impuesta por su funci√≥n t√©cnica. Adem√°s de ello, lo normal ser√° que el dise√Īo se encuentre protegido por la marca que permita su distinci√≥n frente a competidores y finalmente, si es capaz de traspasar las barreras de la funcionalidad de las prendas de vestir y cuenta con una altura creativa superior materializada en una originalidad objetiva, con tintes de novedad, que le permita su catalogaci√≥n art√≠stica, estar√° igualmente protegido por derecho de autor. Otras cuestiones, que resultan interesantes dentro del sector son los procedimientos previstos a nivel penal y aduanero para tratar de paliar la problem√°tica de las falsificaciones; la variedad de contratos que resultan indispensables para facilitar las transacciones comerciales entre la multitud de profesionales que cada d√≠a intervienen en la fase de producci√≥n y comercializaci√≥n del producto teniendo en cuenta su car√°cter global y la temporalidad fugaz de las colecciones, con especial menci√≥n a los celebrados con influencers en los que ha de primar la transparencia; las medidas antidumping y las propuestas normativas que permitan exigir una responsabilidad real y efectiva frente a conductas comerciales desleales de dumping social y ambiental en terceros pa√≠ses; y finalmente, valorar el tratamiento de la materia en otros pa√≠ses, en este caso, la comparativa del sistema legal espa√Īol con el estadounidense y colombiano revela, por un lado, una disparidad con puntos de encuentro entre los dos primeros y un mayor acercamiento al tercero debido a que su normativa presenta una marcada influencia europea y estadounidense, teniendo en cuenta que gracias a los tratados internacionales suscritos en la materia se ha permitido cierta armonizaci√≥n, y, por otro, la conclusi√≥n de que cada sistema normativo trata de adaptar de la mejor manera posible los recursos jur√≠dicos a su alcance al vertiginoso mundo de la moda.Fashion Law research is based on an interest that transcends the merely aesthetic and seeks to explore a regulatory framework above all characterized by its transversality. At the start of the study there was a lack of solid literature going beyond a timid presentation of the subject, so its research has been carried out using books and publications from other countries, articles, blogs, regulations, doctrine and jurisprudence, as well as being participants and spectators of its evolution through publications, seminars, courses and a constant interest in its development. Fashion law is currently recognized in our country, although it does not receive any specialized treatment. Proof of this is the existence of the C√≥digo de la Moda [Fashion Code], in which we can find the main regulations applicable to the industry. Furthermore, it can be considered a basic need with a constitutional space, in constant and direct relation to other fundamental rights. Within the fashion sector, the ways of protecting creations arouse great interest, which we can find in the specialized branches of Industrial and Intellectual Property commercial law, specifically in the legal figures of industrial design, patent, utility model, trademarks and copyright, which may coexist in the same product provided that the requirements specified in the applicable regulations are met. As can be seen, there is no shortage of protection measures; however, their application to the sector is sometimes complex due to regulatory shortfalls, conceptual gaps and disharmonization between doctrinal and jurisprudential criteria. Even so, fashion designs that have the characteristic notes of novelty and originality will be able to obtain industrial design protection, in addition to that of patent or utility model if, when incorporating an invention, its appearance is not exclusively imposed by its technical function. Moreover, the design will usually be protected by the brand that allows its distinction from competitors and, finally, if it is able to transcend the barriers of functional garments and has a superior creative level materialized in an objective originality, with a touch of novelty, which permits its artistic classification, it will also be protected by copyright. Other interesting issues in the sector are the procedures established at criminal and customs level to try to tackle the problem of counterfeiting; the variety of contracts that are essential to facilitate commercial transactions between the multitude of professionals who take part every day in the item‚Äôs production and marketing taking into account its global nature and the fleeting temporality of collections, with special mention of those made with influencers in which transparency must prevail; anti-dumping measures and legislative proposals that allow real and effective liability to be demanded in the face of unfair commercial practices of social and environmental dumping in third countries; and, finally, assess how the issue is addressed in other countries. In this case, the comparison of the Spanish legal system with the U.S. and Colombian ones reveals, on the one hand, a disparity with points of convergence between the first two and greater proximity regarding the third, since its regulations have a marked European and U.S. influence, taking into account that, thanks to the international treaties signed on the matter, some harmonization has been allowed, and, on the other, the conclusion that each regulatory system tries its best to adapt the legal resources at its disposal to the fast-paced fashion world

    A global review and meta-analysis of applications of the freshwater Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit

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    The freshwater Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK) has been applied in 35 risk assessment areas in 45 countries across the six inhabited continents (11 applications using FISK v1; 25 using FISK v2). The present study aimed: to assess the breadth of FISK applications and the confidence (certainty) levels associated with the decision-support tool‚Äôs 49 questions and its ability to distinguish between taxa of low-to-medium and high risk of becoming invasive, and thus provide climate-specific, generalised, calibrated thresholds for risk level categorisation; and to identify the most potentially invasive freshwater fish species on a global level. The 1973 risk assessments were carried out by 70‚ÄČ+‚ÄČexperts on 372 taxa (47 of the 51 species listed as invasive in the Global Invasive Species Database www.iucngisd.org/gisd/), which in decreasing order of importance belonged to the taxonomic Orders Cypriniformes, Perciformes, Siluriformes, Characiformes, Salmoniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, with the remaining‚ÄČ‚Čą‚ÄČ8% of taxa distributed across an additional 13 orders. The most widely-screened species (in decreasing importance) were: grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, common carp Cyprinus carpio, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva. Nine ‚Äėglobally‚Äô high risk species were identified: common carp, black bullhead Ameiurus melas, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, Chinese (Amur) sleeper Perccottus glenii, brown bullhead Ameiurus nebulosus, eastern mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki, largemouth (black) bass Micropterus salmoides, pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus and pikeperch Sander lucioperca. The relevance of this global review to policy, legislation, and risk assessment and management procedures is discussed

    Risk factors associated with adverse fetal outcomes in pregnancies affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a secondary analysis of the WAPM study on COVID-19.

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    Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6+/-9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; pPeer reviewe

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an

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    Risk portfolio on modern finance has become increasingly technical, requiring the use of sophisticated mathematical tools in both research and practice. Since companies cannot insure themselves completely against risk, as human incompetence in predicting the future precisely that written in Al-Quran surah Luqman verse 34, they have to manage it to yield an optimal portfolio. The objective here is to minimize the variance among all portfolios, or alternatively, to maximize expected return among all portfolios that has at least a certain expected return. Furthermore, this study focuses on optimizing risk portfolio so called Markowitz MVO (Mean-Variance Optimization). Some theoretical frameworks for analysis are arithmetic mean, geometric mean, variance, covariance, linear programming, and quadratic programming. Moreover, finding a minimum variance portfolio produces a convex quadratic programming, that is minimizing the objective function √į√į¬•with constraints√į √į √į¬• ¬• √įand√į¬ī√į¬• = √į. The outcome of this research is the solution of optimal risk portofolio in some investments that could be finished smoothly using MATLAB R2007b software together with its graphic analysis

    Cabbage and fermented vegetables : From death rate heterogeneity in countries to candidates for mitigation strategies of severe COVID-19

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    Large differences in COVID-19 death rates exist between countries and between regions of the same country. Some very low death rate countries such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, or the Balkans have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods. Although biases exist when examining ecological studies, fermented vegetables or cabbage have been associated with low death rates in European countries. SARS-CoV-2 binds to its receptor, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). As a result of SARS-CoV-2 binding, ACE2 downregulation enhances the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT(1)R) axis associated with oxidative stress. This leads to insulin resistance as well as lung and endothelial damage, two severe outcomes of COVID-19. The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is the most potent antioxidant in humans and can block in particular the AT(1)R axis. Cabbage contains precursors of sulforaphane, the most active natural activator of Nrf2. Fermented vegetables contain many lactobacilli, which are also potent Nrf2 activators. Three examples are: kimchi in Korea, westernized foods, and the slum paradox. It is proposed that fermented cabbage is a proof-of-concept of dietary manipulations that may enhance Nrf2-associated antioxidant effects, helpful in mitigating COVID-19 severity.Peer reviewe

    Impact of COVID-19 on cardiovascular testing in the United States versus the rest of the world