175 research outputs found

    Evaluating social value in the UK construction industry

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    A comparative study of contracts tendered in England, Wales and Scotland was conducted to determine the impact of the Public Services (Social Value) Act 2012 (‘the Act’) on public sector construction contracts. This paper builds on the literature review paper already published by the authors, which set out to define what social value means in the context of public sector works in the UK and under the Act, by assessing the impact on public sector procurement in the UK. A broad method of measurement for social value in public sector construction contracts is developed before reviewing published contracts (tendered and awarded) on the Official Journal of the European Union website. The study has found that the Act has had little impact on England, where social value was already being considered; however, there has been a significant increase in attempts to incorporate social value associated with construction projects in both Wales and Scotland

    Causal Factors of Peace in the Antarctic

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    The prevalence of peace in the Antarctic is a significantly under-researched field. It is often either dismissed as being due to the isolation of the continent in the international system, or simply hailed as a success of the Antarctic Treaty System. This critical review draws on Felix Martin's assertions that interstate relations alone do not account for peace in conflict-prone regions, and therefore other causal factors have to be considered. It critically examines three perspectives on causal factors for peace in the Antarctic, including states adhering to unwritten rules within the Antarctic Treaty System, structural factors of the Treaty System, and the common goals of environmental protection. It ultimately views these causal factors through the lens of Johan Galtung's conceptions of positive and negative peace, suggesting that the peace experienced by the Antarctic can be considered negative. More work must be done on building mechanisms that promote a robust and stable positive peace to ensure the continent remains free from violence in the coming years

    Glaciation and deglaciation of the Stump Cross area, Yorkshire Dales, northern England, determined by terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (10Be) dating.

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    Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (l0Be) surface-exposure ages are reported for three glacially-transported gritstone boulders and one glacially-scoured exposure of gritstone bedrock in the vicinity of Stump Cross Caverns, North Yorkshire. Although the ages do not form a statistically consistent cluster, three of them nevertheless indicate that the transport and deposition of boulders was by ice of the last (Late Devensian) glaciation. The ages provide evidence for glacier ice at the Wharfe-Nidd interfluve, in contrast to previously held views that these uplands had remained above the level of the last ice sheet. The youngest of the three ages on boulders (-18.5 ka) is taken as the best estimate for déglaciation of the area. This is consistent both with surface-exposure ages from sites elsewhere around the southern margin of the Yorkshire Dales and with uranium-series dated speleothems in Stump Cross Caverns. Together these results reveal that déglaciation of the Dales was most likely well advanced by ~18-16 ka, facilitating the rejuvenation of surface and subsurface karstic processes

    People make Places

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    For centuries Glasgow, as a bucolic fishing village and ecclesiastical centre on the banks of the River Clyde, held little of strategic significance. When success and later threats came to the city, it was as a consequence of explosive growth during the industrial era that left a significant civic presence accompanied by social and environmental challenges. Wartime damage to the fabric of the city and the subsequent implementation of modernist planning left Glasgow with a series of existential threats to the lives and the health of its people that have taken time to understand and come to terms with. In a few remarkable decades of late 20th century regeneration, Glasgow began to be put back together. The trauma of the second half of the 20th century is fading but not yet a distant memory. Existential threats from the climate emergency can provoke the reaction “what, again?” However, the resilience built over the last 50 years has instilled a belief that a constructive, pro-active and creative approach to face this challenge along with the recognition that such action can be transformational for safeguarding and improving people’s lives and the quality of their places. A process described as a just transition that has become central to Glasgow’s approach. Of Scotland’s four big cities, three are surrounded by landscape and sea only Glasgow is surrounded by itself. Even with a small territory, Glasgow is still the largest of Scotland’s big cities and by some margin. When the wider metropolitan area is considered, Glasgow is – like Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool – no mean city. People make Places begins with a review of the concept and complexities of place, discusses why these matter and reviews the growing body of evidence that place quality can deliver economic, social and environmental value. The following chapters focus on the history and evolution of modern Glasgow in four eras of 19th and early 20th century industrialisation, de- industrialisation and modernism in mid 20th century, late 20th century regeneration and a 21st century recovery towards transition and renaissance, and document the process, synthesis and the results of a major engagement programme and to explore systematic approaches to place and consensus building around the principal issues. The second half of the work reflects on a stocktaking of place in contemporary Glasgow, looking at the city through the lenses of an international, metropolitan and everyday city, concluding with a review of the places of Glasgow and what may be learned from them revealing some valuable insights presented in a series of Place Stories included. The concluding chapter sets out the findings of the investigation and analysis reviewing place goals, challenges and opportunities for Glasgow over the decades to 2030 and 2040 and ends with some recommendations about what Glasgow might do better to combine place thinking and climate awareness and setting out practical steps to mobilise Glasgow’s ‘place ecosystem’

    Minimum Information about a Neuroscience Investigation (MINI) Electrophysiology

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    This module represents the formalized opinion of the authors and the CARMEN consortium, which identifies the minimum information required to report the use of electrophysiology in a neuroscience study, for submission to the CARMEN system (www.carmen.org.uk).