4,147 research outputs found

    The importance of Indigenous Territories for conserving bat diversity across the Amazon biome

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    Indigenous Peoples have shaped and managed vast tracts of the Amazon rainforest for millennia. However, evaluations of how much biodiversity is governed under Indigenous stewardship are scarce. Here, we integrate geospatial data of officially recognized ITs across the Amazon biogeographic boundaries with the distribution range of >200 Amazonian bat species, to: (i) assess the potential contribution of ITs for the conservation of this species -rich mammalian group across the Amazon; (ii) investigate which ITs host the greatest number of bat species; and (iii) analyse how threatened and Data Deficient bat species are distributed within the ITs of the nine Amazonian countries. Twenty-two bat species were found to have >25% of their global distribution range within Amazonian ITs, including many forest-dependent species with restricted distribution ranges and a highly threatened or Data Deficient conservation status. Some particularly diverse ITs were found to harbour over half of the known Amazonian bat species, particularly in transboundary areas in the North-western Amazon. At the national level, the highest number of species with over 25% of their national Amazonian distribution within ITs was found in Peru (145), followed by Brazil (136), Colombia and Ecuador (both with 134). This study reveals the potential role of Indigenous Peoples in Amazonian bat conservation and emphasizes the contribution of their stewardship for maintaining the ecosystems in which some of the most rare and unique bat species are found. (C) 2020 Associacao Brasileira de Ciencia Ecologica e Conservacao. Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe

    Optimizaci贸n de indicadores de producci贸n de obras, para mejorar la productividad, con la implementaci贸n de herramientas BIM, en proyectos de construcci贸n, en el sector universitario, de Lima, Per煤

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    Uno de los principales problemas de las obras de construcci贸n, es la productividad, al respecto se han planteado diversas metodolog铆as, por lo cual planteamos el trabajo de investigaci贸n en Obras de construcci贸n de universidades, para poder comparar obras similares. El presente trabajo de investigaci贸n sobre 鈥淥ptimizaci贸n de indicadores de producci贸n de obra para mejorar la Productividad, con la implementaci贸n de herramientas BIM, en Proyectos de construcci贸n, en el Sector Universitario, de Lima, Per煤鈥, tuvo como objetivo principal el mejorar la productividad en la construcci贸n de universidades, para lo cual se plantea implementar la metodolog铆a BIM. Para lograr este objetivo principal se plantean los siguientes objetivos espec铆ficos: disminuir la variabilidad de Obras de construcci贸n de Universidades utilizando Modelamiento BIM, disminuir desperdicio de acero de Obras de construcci贸n de Universidades utilizando Modelamiento BIM y disminuir desperdicio de concreto, utilizando Modelamiento BIM. La metodolog铆a usada es la obtenci贸n de informaci贸n de RFIs, desperdicios de acero y concreto de 3 Obras de Construcci贸n de Universidades (Datos secundarios), la observaci贸n de RFIs, desperdicios de acero y concreto de 2 Obras de Construcci贸n de Universidades, aplicando BIM. De acuerdo a cuadros comparativos de los ratios e indicadores reales (RFIs, desperdicio de concreto y acero,) con lo cual se identifica el grado de correlaci贸n entre la productividad y la implementaci贸n de BIM. Posteriormente se plantea una propuesta de mejora en una obra que se est谩 ejecutando en la actualidad, haciendo una observaci贸n de los valores de RFIs, desperdicio de acero y concreto, para evaluar la mejora de la Productividad utilizando BIM. El nivel del BIM utilizado en un nivel intermedio y se consigue mejorar el desperdicio de acero, obteni茅ndose un porcentaje de ahorro en acero entre 8% a 14%. Con el uso del BIM se consigue mejorar el desperdicio de concreto, plante谩ndose meta de tener desperdicios entre 10% y 16%. Con el uso del BIM se consigue disminuir la variabilidad en la construcci贸n, al mejorar la respuesta de los RFIs (consultas) al plantearse conseguir 90 m2 por cada RFI. Por lo expuesto se concluye que, en Obras de universidades, aplicando BIM se mejora la productividad, consiguiendo reducir costos en desperdicios de acero y concreto, as铆 mismo de disminuir la variabilidad de la obra, al compatibilizar de mejor manera el proyecto.One of the main problems of the construction works is productivity, in this respect several methodologies have been proposed, for which reason we propose the research work in construction works of universities, in order to compare similar works. The present work of investigation on "Optimize of indicators of production of work to improve the Productivity with the implementation of tools BIM, in Projects of construction, in the University Sector, of Lima, Peru", had like main objective the improve the productivity in the construction of universities, for which it is proposed to implement the BIM methodology. To achieve this main objective, the following specific objectives are proposed: decrease the variability of Construction Works of Universities using BIM Modeling, decrease steel waste from University Construction Works using BIM Modeling and reduce concrete waste, using BIM Modeling. The methodology used is obtaining information on RFIs, steel and concrete waste from 3 University Construction Works (secondary data), the observation of RFIs, steel and concrete waste from 2 University Construction Works, applying BIM. According to comparative tables of the ratios and real indicators (RFIs, waste of concrete and steel), which identifies the degree of correlation between productivity and the implementation of BIM. Subsequently, a proposal for improvement is proposed in a work that is currently being executed, making an observation of the values of RFIs, waste of steel and concrete, to evaluate the improvement of Productivity using BIM. The level of BIM used at an intermediate level and steel waste is improved, obtaining a percentage of savings in steel between 8% to 14%. With the use of the BIM it is possible to improve the waste of concrete, considering the goal of having waste between 10% and 16%. With the use of the BIM it is possible to reduce the variability in the construction, by improving the response of the RFIs (queries) when considering getting 90 m2 for each RFI. Therefore, it is concluded that, in Works of universities, applying BIM improves productivity, reducing costs in steel and concrete waste, as well as reducing the variability of the work, by making the project more compatible.Trabajo de investigaci贸nEscuela de Postgrad

    Are sacred caves still safe havens for the endemic bats of Madagascar?

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    Despite conservation discourses in Madagascar increasingly emphasizing the role of customary institutions for wildlife management, we know relatively little about their effectiveness. Here, we used semi-structured interviews with 54 adults in eight villages to investigate whether sacred caves and taboos offer conservation benefits for cave-dwelling bats in and around Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, south-west Madagascar. Although some caves were described as sites of spiritual significance for the local communities, most interviewees (c. 76%) did not recognize their present-day sacred status. Similarly, only 22% of the interviewees recognized taboos inhibiting bat hunting and consumption. Legal protection of bats and caves through protected areas was often more widely acknowledged than customary regulations, although up to 30% of the interviewees reported consumption of bats within their communities. Guano extraction was often tolerated in sacred caves in exchange for economic compensation. This may benefit bat conservation by creating incentives for bat protection, although extraction is often performed through destructive and exploitative practices with little benefit for local communities. In view of these results our study questions the extent to which sacred sites, taboos and protected areas offer protection for bats in Madagascar. These results support previous studies documenting the erosion of customary institutions in Madagascar, including the loss of the spiritual values underpinning sacred sites. Given that many Malagasy bats are cave-dwelling species and that most depend on the customary protection of these sites, it is important to obtain a better understanding of the complex interactions between spiritual practices, taboos and protected areas in sustaining bat diversity.Peer reviewe

    A Primer on Resonances in Quantum Mechanics

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    After a pedagogical introduction to the concept of resonance in classical and quantum mechanics, some interesting applications are discussed. The subject includes resonances occurring as one of the effects of radiative reaction, the resonances involved in the refraction of electromagnetic waves by a medium with a complex refractive index, and quantum decaying systems described in terms of resonant states of the energy. Some useful mathematical approaches like the Fourier transform, the complex scaling method and the Darboux transformation are also reviewed.Comment: 28 pages, 9 figures, lectures presented at the Advanced Summer School in Physics 2008, Cinvestav, Mexic

    Catching the Butterfly and the Homunculus of n Carinae with ALMA

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    The nature and origin of the molecular gas component located in the circumstellar vicinity of n Carinae are still far from being completely understood. Here, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array CO(3-2) observations with a high angular resolution (鈭0.鈥15) and a great sensitivity that are employed to reveal the origin of this component in n Carinae. These observations reveal much higher velocity (-300 to +270 km s-1) blue- and redshifted molecular thermal emission than previously reported, which we associate with the lobes of the Homunculus Nebula, and which delineates very well the innermost contours of the red- and blueshifted lobes likely due to limb brightening. The inner contour of the redshifted emission was proposed to be a disrupted torus, but here we reveal that it is at least part of the molecular emission originating from the lobes and/or the expanding equatorial skirt. On the other hand, closer to systemic velocities (卤100 km s-1), the CO molecular gas traces an inner butterfly-shaped structure that is also revealed at near-IR and mid-IR wavelengths as the region in which the shielded dust resides. The location and kinematics of the molecular component indicate that this material has formed after the different eruptions of n Carinae.Fil: Zapata, Luis A.. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Loinard, Laurent. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Fernandez Lopez, Manuel. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Gobernaci贸n. Comisi贸n de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas. Instituto Argentino de Radioastronom铆a. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Centro Cient铆fico Tecnol贸gico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto Argentino de Radioastronom铆a; ArgentinaFil: Toal谩, Jes煤s A.. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Gonz谩lez, Ricardo F.. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Rodr铆guez, Luis F.. Universidad Nacional Aut贸noma de M茅xico; M茅xicoFil: Gull, Theodore R.. No especif铆ca;Fil: Morris, Patrick W.. No especif铆ca;Fil: Menten, Karl M.. Max Planck Institute For Radio Astronomy; AlemaniaFil: Kami艅ski, Tomasz. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center of the Polish Academy of Sciences; Poloni

    Improving air quality in metropolitan Mexico City : an economic valuation

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    Mexico City has for years experienced high levels of ozone and particulate air pollution. In 1995-99 the entire population of the Mexico City metropolitan area was exposed to annual average concentrations of fine particulate pollution (particulates with a diameter of less than 10micrometers, or PM10) exceeding 50 micrograms per cubic meter, the annual average standard in both Mexico and the United States. Two million people were exposed to annual average PM10 levels of more than 75 micrograms per cubic meter. The daily maximum one-hour ozone standard was exceeded at least 300 days a year. The Mexico Air Quality Management Team documents population-weighted exposures to ozone and PM10 between 1995 and 1999, project exposures in 2010, and computes the value of four scenarios for 2010: A 10 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. A 20 percent reduction in PM10 and ozone. Achievement of ambient air quality standards across the metropolitan area. A 68 percent reduction in ozone and a 47 percent reduction in PM10 across the metropolitan area. The authors calculate the health benefits of reducing ozone and PM10 for each scenario using dose-response functions from the peer-reviewed literature. They value cases of morbidity and premature mortality avoided using three approaches: Cost of illness and forgone earnings only (low estimate). Cost of illness, forgone earnings, and willingness to pay for avoided morbidity (central case estimate). Cost of illness, forgone earnings, willingness to pay for avoided morbidity, and willingness to pay for avoided mortality (high estimate). The results suggest that the benefits of a 10 percent reduction in ozone and PM10 in 2010 are about 760million(in1999U.S.dollars)annuallyinthecentralcase.Thebenefitsofa20percentreductioninozoneandPM10areabout760 million (in 1999 U.S. dollars) annually in the central case. The benefits of a 20 percent reduction in ozone and PM10 are about 1.49 billion annually. In each case the benefits of reducing ozone amount to about 15 percent of the total benefits. By estimating the magnitude of the benefits from air pollution control, the authors provide motivation for examining specific policies that could achieve the air pollution reductions that they value. They also provide unit values for the benefits from reductions in ambient air pollution (for example, per microgram of PM10) that could be used as inputs into a full cost-benefit analysisof air pollution control strategies.Montreal Protocol,Public Health Promotion,Global Environment Facility,Air Quality&Clean Air,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Montreal Protocol,Air Quality&Clean Air,Health Monitoring&Evaluation,Global Environment Facility,Transport and Environment

    Inactivation of nuclear factor-Y inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima formation

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    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis and restenosis are multifactorial diseases associated with abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays a major role in transcriptional activation of the CYCLIN B1 gene (CCNB1), a key positive regulator of cell proliferation and neointimal thickening. Here, we investigated the role of NF-Y in occlusive vascular disease. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We performed molecular and expression studies in cultured cells, animal models, and human tissues. We find upregulation of NF-Y and cyclin B1 expression in proliferative regions of murine atherosclerotic plaques and mechanically induced lesions, which correlates with higher binding of NF-Y to target sequences in the CCNB1 promoter. NF-YA expression in neointimal lesions is detected in VSMCs, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, a main inductor of VSMC growth and neointima development, induces the recruitment of NF-Y to the CCNB1 promoter and augments both CCNB1 mRNA expression and cell proliferation through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt activation in rat and human VSMCs. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a NF-YA-dominant negative mutant inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced CCNB1 expression and VSMC proliferation in vitro and neointimal lesion formation in a mouse model of femoral artery injury. We also detect NF-Y expression and DNA-binding activity in human neointimal lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify NF-Y as a key downstream effector of the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-dependent mitogenic pathway that is activated in experimental and human vasculoproliferative diseases. They also identify NF-Y inhibition as a novel and attractive strategy for the local treatment of neointimal formation induced by vessel denudation.This study was funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competiveness (MINECO; grants SAF2010-16044, SAF200911949), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; grants RD12/0042/0021, RD12/0042/0028, RD12/0042/0053), and the Dr L茅on Dumont Prize 2010 by the Belgian Society of Cardiology (to Vicente Andr茅s). Patricia Fern谩ndez received salary support from ISCIII and Carlos Silvestre-Roig from Fundaci贸n Mario Losantos del Campo and Fundaci贸n Ferrer para la Investigaci贸n. 脫scar M. Pello and Ricardo Rodr铆guez-Calvo hold a Juan de la Cierva contract from MINECO. Vanesa Esteban is an investigator of the Sara Borell program from ISCIII (CD06/00232). The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) is supported by MINECO and Pro-CNIC Foundation.S