2,693 research outputs found

    Evidence for oxidative stress in the developing cerebellum of the rat after chronic mild carbon monoxide exposure (0.0025% in air)

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that chronic very mild prenatal carbon monoxide (CO) exposure (25 parts per million) subverts the normal development of the rat cerebellar cortex. Studies at this chronic low CO exposure over the earliest periods of mammalian development have not been performed to date. Pregnant rats were exposed chronically to CO from gestational day E5 to E20. In the postnatal period, rat pups were grouped as follows: Group A: prenatal exposure to CO only; group B: prenatal exposure to CO then exposed to CO from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P20; group C: postnatal exposure only, from P5 to P20, and group D, controls (air without CO). At P20, immunocytochemical analyses of oxidative stress markers, and structural and functional proteins were assessed in the cerebellar cortex of the four groups. Quantitative real time PCR assays were performed for inducible (iNOS), neuronal (nNOS), and endothelial (eNOS) nitric oxide synthases.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), SOD2, and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) immunoreactivity increased in cells of the cerebellar cortex of CO-exposed pups. INOS and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity also increased in blood vessels and Purkinje cells (PCs) of pups from group-A, B and C. By contrast, nNOS immunoreactivity decreased in PCs from group-B. Endothelial NOS immunoreactivity showed no changes in any CO-exposed group. The mRNA levels for iNOS were significantly up-regulated in the cerebellum of rats from group B; however, mRNA levels for nNOS and eNOS remained relatively unchanged in groups A, B and C. Ferritin-H immunoreactivity increased in group-B. Immunocytochemistry for neurofilaments (structural protein), synapsin-1 (functional protein), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA), were decreased in groups A and B. Immunoreactivity for two calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin and calbindin, remained unchanged. The immunoreactivity of the astrocytic marker GFAP increased after prenatal exposure.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that exogenously supplied CO during the prenatal period promotes oxidative stress as indicated by the up-regulation of SOD-1, SOD-2, HO-1, Ferritin-H, and iNOS with increased nitrotyrosine in the rat cerebella suggesting that deleterious and protective mechanisms were activated. These changes correlate with reductions of proteins important to cerebellar function: pre-synaptic terminals proteins (synapsin-1), proteins for the maintenance of neuronal size, shape and axonal quality (neurofilaments) and protein involved in GABAergic neurotransmission (GAD). Increased GFAP immunoreactivity after prenatal CO-exposure suggests a glial mediated response to the constant presence of CO. There were differential responses to prenatal vs. postnatal CO exposure: Prenatal exposure seems to be more damaging; a feature exemplified by the persistence of markers indicating oxidative stress in pups at P20, following prenatal only CO-exposure. The continuation of this cellular environment up to day 20 after CO exposure suggests the condition is chronic. Postnatal exposure without prenatal exposure shows the least impact, whereas prenatal followed by postnatal exposure exhibits the most pronounced outcome among the groups.</p

    Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) : the large-scale structure of galaxies and comparison to mock universes

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    MA acknowledges funding from the University of St Andrews and the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research. ASGR is supported by funding from a UWA Fellowship. PN acknowledges the support of the Royal Society through the award of a University Research Fellowship and the European Research Council, through receipt of a Starting Grant (DEGAS-259586). MJIB acknowledges the financial support of the Australian Research Council Future Fellowship 100100280. TMR acknowledges support from a European Research Council Starting Grant (DEGAS-259586).From a volume-limited sample of 45 542 galaxies and 6000 groups with z ≤ 0.213, we use an adapted minimal spanning tree algorithm to identify and classify large-scale structures within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Using galaxy groups, we identify 643 filaments across the three equatorial GAMA fields that span up to 200 h−1 Mpc in length, each with an average of eight groups within them. By analysing galaxies not belonging to groups, we identify a secondary population of smaller coherent structures composed entirely of galaxies, dubbed ‘tendrils’ that appear to link filaments together, or penetrate into voids, generally measuring around 10 h−1 Mpc in length and containing on average six galaxies. Finally, we are also able to identify a population of isolated void galaxies. By running this algorithm on GAMA mock galaxy catalogues, we compare the characteristics of large-scale structure between observed and mock data, finding that mock filaments reproduce observed ones extremely well. This provides a probe of higher order distribution statistics not captured by the popularly used two-point correlation function.Peer reviewe

    Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) : stellar mass functions by Hubble type

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    This work was supported by the Austrian Science Foundation FWF under grant P23946. AWG was supported under the Australian Research Council's funding scheme FT110100263.We present an estimate of the galaxy stellar mass function and its division by morphological type in the local (0.025 < z < 0.06) Universe. Adopting robust morphological classifications as previously presented (Kelvin et al.) for a sample of 3727 galaxies taken from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, we define a local volume and stellar mass limited sub-sample of 2711 galaxies to a lower stellar mass limit of M = 109.0 MΘ. We confirm that the galaxy stellar mass function is well described by a double-Schechter function given by Μ* = 1010.64 MΘ, α1 = 0.43, φ1* = 4.18 dex-1 Mpc-3, α2 = −1.50 and φ2* = 0.74 dex-1 Mpc-3. The constituent morphological-type stellar mass functions are well sampled above our lower stellar mass limit, excepting the faint little blue spheroid population of galaxies. We find approximately 71-4+3 per cent of the stellar mass in the local Universe is found within spheroid-dominated galaxies; ellipticals and S0-Sas. The remaining 29-3+4 per cent falls predominantly within late-type disc-dominated systems, Sab-Scds and Sd-Irrs. Adopting reasonable bulge-to-total ratios implies that approximately half the stellar mass today resides in spheroidal structures, and half in disc structures. Within this local sample, we find approximate stellar mass proportions for E : S0-Sa : Sab-Scd : Sd-Irr of 34 : 37 : 24 :5.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    A prospective cohort study about the effect of repeated living high and working higher on cerebral autoregulation in unacclimatized lowlanders

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    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired during acute high-altitude (HA) exposure, however, effects of temporarily living high and working higher on CA require further investigation. In 18 healthy lowlanders (11 women), we hypothesized that the cerebral autoregulation index (ARI) assessed by the percentage change in middle cerebral artery peak blood velocity (Δ%MCAv)/percentage change in mean arterial blood pressure (Δ%MAP) induced by a sit-to-stand maneuver, is (i) reduced on Day1 at 5050 m compared to 520 m, (ii) is improved after 6 days at 5050 m, and (iii) is less impaired during re-exposure to 5050 m after 7 days at 520 m compared to Cycle1. Participants spent 4-8 h/day at 5050 m and slept at 2900 m similar to real-life working shifts. High/low ARI indicate impaired/intact CA, respectively. With the sit-to-stand at 520 m, mean (95% CI) in ΔMAP and ΔMCAv were − 26% (− 41 to − 10) and − 13% (− 19 to − 7), P < 0.001 both comparisons; mean ± SD in ARI was 0.58 ± 2.44Δ%/Δ%, respectively. On Day1 at 5050 m, ARI worsened compared to 520 m (3.29 ± 2.42Δ%/Δ%), P = 0.006 but improved with acclimatization (1.44 ± 2.43Δ%/Δ%, P = 0.039). ARI was less affected during re-exposure to 5050 m (1.22 ± 2.52Δ%/Δ%, P = 0.027 altitude-induced change between sojourns). This study showed that CA (i) is impaired during acute HA exposure, (ii) improves with living high, working higher and (iii) is ameliorated during re-exposure to HA

    α-FAPbI3 powder presynthesized by microwave irradiation for photovoltaic applications

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    The development of up-scalable and high-throughput methodologies to fabricate high-efficiency lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on α-phase formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) is one of the main challenges of making solar energy economical. In this context, PSCs based on α-phase formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) are receiving special attention as this perovskite has the highest theoretical photoconversion efficiency (PCE). This manuscript reports an easy, fast and environmentally-friendly way to prepare α-FAPbI3 black powders by a microwave-assisted synthesis and their application in solar cells. The α-FAPbI3 powders consist of micrometric particles that can be stored for weeks in a closed vial at ambient conditions. This technique presents an enormous potential for upscaling FAPbI3 powders synthesis prerequisite necessary for large scale commercialization. The performance of the presynthesized FAPbI3-based solar cell was comparable with that of PSCs fabricated with the conventional procedure from precursors solutions, leading to a maximum PCE value of 18.15%, with an VOC=1.07 V, a Jsc=24.28 mA/cm2 and an FF=70%. The presynthesized FAPbI3-based solar cell was further modified through the addition of methylammonium chloride (MACl) in order to study the generality of the approach. The optical band gap for the presynthesized perovskite shifted from ∼1.43 eV to ∼1.55 eV with the MACl addition (30 mol%), indicating the formation of a mixed methylammonium and formamidinium based perovskite material (MAFAPbI3). In addition, the incorporation of MACl led to an increase in the grain size and the disappearance of the residual δ-phase perovskite, thus improving the efficiency of the final device.Funding for open access charge: CRUE-Universitat Jaume

    Alexithymia and depression in elderly people that get directed physical activity

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    La relación entre la alexitimia y la depresión y los factores sociodemográficos ha sido estudiada en personas mayores. Sin embargo, el papel atenuador del ejercicio en estas afecciones aún debe ser determinado. En el presente estudio se mide el grado de alexitimia y depresión en adultos mayores, comparando una muestra sedentaria con una de practicantes de actividad física. Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo transversal con una muestra compuesta por 27 participantes, 9 hombres y 18 mujeres de más de 60 años (64 ± 5.1 años), con objeto de medir el grado de alexitimia y depresión que presentaban en el momento de la recogida de datos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la escala de depresión de Yesavage, la Escala de Alexitimia de Toronto (TAS-20) y el Cuestionario de Salud SF-12. Los resultados mostraron que los practicantes de actividad física presentaban puntuaciones más bajas en alexitimia y depresión que los sujetos sedentarios, sin que éstas variables estuvieran relacionadas en función del género y la edad. A tenor de los resultados, el ejercicio pudiera jugar algún papel en la modulación de las alteraciones psicológicas

    Non-LTE Model Atmospheres for Late-Type Stars II. Restricted NLTE Calculations for a Solar-Like Atmosphere

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    We test our knowledge of the atomic opacity in the solar UV spectrum. Using the atomic data compiled in Paper I from modern, publicly available, databases, we perform calculations that are confronted with space-based observations of the Sun. At wavelengths longer than about 260 nm, LTE modeling can reproduce quite closely the observed fluxes; uncertainties in the atomic line data account fully for the differences between calculated and observed fluxes. At shorter wavelengths, departures from LTE appear to be important, as our LTE and restricted NLTE calculations differ. Analysis of visible-near infrared Na I and O I lines, two species that produce a negligible absorption in the UV, shows that observed departures from LTE for theses species can be reproduced very accurately with restricted (fixed atmospheric structure) NLTE calculations.Comment: 13 pages, 11 figures, to appear in Ap

    Galaxy and mass assembly (GAMA): Witnessing the assembly of the cluster Abell 1882

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    We present a combined optical and X-ray analysis of the rich cluster ABELL 1882 (A1882) with the aim of identifying merging substructure and understanding the recent assembly history of this system. Our optical data consist of spectra drawn from the Gala

    Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Linking star formation histories and stellar mass growth

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    WWe present evidence for stochastic star formation histories in low-mass (M* <1010M⊙) galaxies from observations within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. For ̃73 000 galaxies between 0.05 < z < 0.32, we calculate star formation rate

    Probing the roles of orientation and multi-scale gas distributions in shaping the obscuration of Active Galactic Nuclei through cosmic time

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    The origin of obscuration in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is still an open debate. In particular, it is unclear what drives the relative contributions to the line-of-sight column densities from galaxy-scale and torus-linked obscuration. The latter source is expected to play a significant role in Unification Models, while the former is thought to be relevant in both Unification and Evolutionary Models. In this work, we make use of a combination of cosmological semi-analytic models and semi-empirical prescriptions for the properties of galaxies and AGN, to study AGN obscuration. We consider a detailed object-by-object modelling of AGN evolution, including different AGN light curves (LCs), gas density profiles, and also AGN feedback-induced gas cavities. Irrespective of our assumptions on specific AGN LC or galaxy gas fractions, we find that, on the strict assumption of an exponential profile for the gas component, galaxy-scale obscuration alone can hardly reproduce the fraction of log(NH/\log (N_{\rm H}/cm2)24^{-2}) \geq 24 sources at least at z3z\lesssim3. This requires an additional torus component with a thickness that decreases with luminosity to match the data. The torus should be present in all evolutionary stages of a visible AGN to be effective, although galaxy-scale gas obscuration may be sufficient to reproduce the obscured fraction with 22<log(NH/22<\log (N_{\rm H}/cm2)<24^{-2})<24 (Compton-thin, CTN) if we assume extremely compact gas disc components. The claimed drop of CTN fractions with increasing luminosity does not appear to be a consequence of AGN feedback, but rather of gas reservoirs becoming more compact with decreasing stellar mass.Comment: MNRAS, accepted, 19 pages, 15 figures, 3 appendice
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