12 research outputs found

    The Rare IL22RA2 Signal Peptide Coding Variant rs28385692 Decreases Secretion of IL-22BP Isoform-1, -2 and -3 and Is Associated with Risk for Multiple Sclerosis.

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    The IL22RA2 locus is associated with risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) but causative variants are yet to be determined. In a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) screen of this locus in a Basque population, rs28385692, a rare coding variant substituting Leu for Pro at position 16 emerged significantly (p = 0.02). This variant is located in the signal peptide (SP) shared by the three secreted protein isoforms produced by IL22RA2 (IL-22 binding protein-1(IL-22BPi1), IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3). Genotyping was extended to a Europe-wide case-control dataset and yielded high significance in the full dataset (p = 3.17 √ó 10-4). Importantly, logistic regression analyses conditioning on the main known MS-associated SNP at this locus, rs17066096, revealed that this association was independent from the primary association signal in the full case-control dataset. In silico analysis predicted both disruption of the alpha helix of the H-region of the SP and decreased hydrophobicity of this region, ultimately affecting the SP cleavage site. We tested the effect of the p.Leu16Pro variant on the secretion of IL-22BPi1, IL-22BPi2 and IL-22BPi3 and observed that the Pro16 risk allele significantly lowers secretion levels of each of the isoforms to around 50%-60% in comparison to the Leu16 reference allele. Thus, our study suggests that genetically coded decreased levels of IL-22BP isoforms are associated with augmented risk for MS

    Germline variants at SOHLH2 influence multiple myeloma risk

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    Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (2012.0193 and 2017.0436), the Swedish Research Council (2017-02023), the Swedish Cancer Society (2017/265), Stiftelsen Bor√•s Forsknings-och Utvecklingsfond mot Cancer, the Nordic Cancer Union (R217-A13329-18-S65), EU-MSCA-COFUND 754299 CanFaster, the Myeloma UK and Cancer Research UK (C1298/A8362), a Jacquelin Forbes-Nixon Fellowship, and Mr. Ralph Stockwell. We thank Ellinor Johnsson and Anna Collin for their assistance. We are indebted to the clinicians and patients who contributed samples. Open access funding provided by Lund University. Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2021, The Author(s).Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by the uncontrolled, clonal expansion of plasma cells. While there is epidemiological evidence for inherited susceptibility, the molecular basis remains incompletely understood. We report a genome-wide association study totalling 5,320 cases and 422,289 controls from four Nordic populations, and find a novel MM risk variant at SOHLH2 at 13q13.3 (risk allele frequency = 3.5%; odds ratio = 1.38; P = 2.2 √ó 10‚ąí14). This gene encodes a transcription factor involved in gametogenesis that is normally only weakly expressed in plasma cells. The association is represented by 14 variants in linkage disequilibrium. Among these, rs75712673 maps to a genomic region with open chromatin in plasma cells, and upregulates SOHLH2 in this cell type. Moreover, rs75712673 influences transcriptional activity in luciferase assays, and shows a chromatin looping interaction with the SOHLH2 promoter. Our work provides novel insight into MM susceptibility.Peer reviewe

    Functional dissection of inherited non-coding variation influencing multiple myeloma risk

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    Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (2012.0193 and 2017.0436), the Swedish Research Council (2017-02023 and 2018-00424), the Swedish Cancer Society (2017/265), the Nordic Cancer Union (R217-A13329-18-S65), Arne and Inga-Britt Lundberg’s Stiftelse (2017-0055), European Research Council (EU-MSCA-COFUND 754299 CanFaster), Myeloma UK and Cancer Research UK (C1298/A8362), The National Institute of Health (R01 DK103794 and R01HL146500), the New York Stem Cell Foundation, a gift from the Lodish Family to Boston Children’s Hospital, and Mr. Ralph Stockwell. We thank Ellinor Johnsson for her assistance between 2011 and 2020. We are indebted to the patients who participated in the study. Publisher Copyright: © 2022, The Author(s).Thousands of non-coding variants have been associated with increased risk of human diseases, yet the causal variants and their mechanisms-of-action remain obscure. In an integrative study combining massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), expression analyses (eQTL, meQTL, PCHiC) and chromatin accessibility analyses in primary cells (caQTL), we investigate 1,039 variants associated with multiple myeloma (MM). We demonstrate that MM susceptibility is mediated by gene-regulatory changes in plasma cells and B-cells, and identify putative causal variants at six risk loci (SMARCD3, WAC, ELL2, CDCA7L, CEP120, and PREX1). Notably, three of these variants co-localize with significant plasma cell caQTLs, signaling the presence of causal activity at these precise genomic positions in an endogenous chromosomal context in vivo. Our results provide a systematic functional dissection of risk loci for a hematologic malignancy.Peer reviewe

    Identification of regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in vivo in humans using population genetics

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    Introduction: Understanding how hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are regulated is of central importance for the development of new therapies for blood disorders and for regenerative medicine. Traditionally, however, HSPC regulation has been studied in model systems, and little is known about the situation in vivo in humans. Methods: To learn how HSPCs are regulated under native conditions in humans, we carried out a first large-scale genome-wide association study on CD34+ cells, representing HSPCs in blood. We used circulating CD34+ levels as a proxy trait to expose regulators of key phenomena like HSPC pool size, migration, and early differentiation. We created a unique phenotyping platform based on high-throughput, high-resolution flow-cytometry and machine learning-based algorithms for automated flow data analysis, and quantified CD34+ cells in 9,936 adults.Results: We identified 8 genome-wide (P<5x10-8) and 20 suggestive loci (P<5x10-6) associated with CD34+ levels. The two strongest were the HSPC migration receptor CXCR4 and a novel protein phosphatase never previously implicated in stem cell biology. Using eQTL, ATAC-seq, and promoter capture Hi-C analysis in isolated HSPCs, we pinpoint likely causal variants, including variants in distant regulatory elements selectively active in specific HSPC subpopulations. Furthermore, shRNA knockdown in primary CD34+ cells supports that some of the identified genes affect CD34+ proliferation and differentiation.Conclusions: We report the first large-scale analysis of the genetic architecture of HSPC regulation, with potential implications for stem cell transplantation and the treatment of hematologic malignancies.Grant information: European Research Council, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Cancer Society

    Genome-wide association study on 13 167 individuals identifies regulators of blood CD34+cell levels

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    Stem cell transplantation is a cornerstone in the treatment of blood malignancies. The most common method to harvest stem cells for transplantation is by leukapheresis, requiring mobilization of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from the bone marrow into the blood. Identifying the genetic factors that control blood CD34+ cell levels could reveal new drug targets for HSPC mobilization. Here we report the first large-scale, genome-wide association study on blood CD34+ cell levels. Across 13 167 individuals, we identify 9 significant and 2 suggestive associations, accounted for by 8 loci (PPM1H, CXCR4, ENO1-RERE, ITGA9, ARHGAP45, CEBPA, TERT, and MYC). Notably, 4 of the identified associations map to CXCR4, showing that bona fide regulators of blood CD34+ cell levels can be identified through genetic variation. Further, the most significant association maps to PPM1H, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase never previously implicated in HSPC biology. PPM1H is expressed in HSPCs, and the allele that confers higher blood CD34+ cell levels downregulates PPM1H. Through functional fine-mapping, we find that this downregulation is caused by the variant rs772557-A, which abrogates an MYB transcription factor‚Äďbinding site in PPM1H intron 1 that is active in specific HSPC subpopulations, including hematopoietic stem cells, and interacts with the promoter by chromatin looping. Furthermore, PPM1H knockdown increases the proportion of CD34+ and CD34+90+ cells in cord blood assays. Our results provide the first large-scale analysis of the genetic architecture of blood CD34+ cell levels and warrant further investigation of PPM1H as a potential inhibition target for stem cell mobilization

    Genome-wide association study on 13,167 individuals identifies regulators of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell levels in human blood

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    Understanding how hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are regulated is of central importance for the development of new therapies for blood disorders and stem cell transplantation. To date, HSPC regulation has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models, but less is known about the mechanisms in vivo in humans. Here, in a genome-wide association study on 13,167 individuals, we identify 9 significant and 2 suggestive DNA sequence variants that influence HSPC (CD34+) levels in human blood. The identified loci associate with blood disorders, harbor known and novel HSPC genes, and affect gene expression in HSPCs. Interestingly, our strongest association maps to the PPM1H gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine phosphatase never previously implicated in stem cell biology. PPM1H is expressed in HSPCs, and the allele that confers higher blood CD34+ cell levels downregulates PPM1H. By functional fine-mapping, we find that this downregulation is caused by the variant rs772557-A, which abrogates a MYB transcription factor binding site in PPM1H intron 1 that is active in specific HSPC subpopulations, including hematopoietic stem cells, and interacts with the promoter by chromatin looping. Furthermore, rs772557-A selectively increases HSPC subpopulations in which the MYB site is active, and PPM1H shRNA- knockdown increased CD34+ and CD34+90+ cell proportions in umbilical cord blood cultures. Our findings represent the first large-scale association study on a stem cell trait, illuminating HSPC regulation in vivo in humans, and identifying PPM1H as a novel inhibition target that can potentially be utilized clinically to facilitate stem cell harvesting for transplantation

    Germline variants at SOHLH2 influence multiple myeloma risk

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    Multiple myeloma (MM) is caused by the uncontrolled, clonal expansion of plasma cells. While there is epidemiological evidence for inherited susceptibility, the molecular basis remains incompletely understood. We report a genome-wide association study totalling 5,320 cases and 422,289 controls from four Nordic populations, and find a novel MM risk variant at SOHLH2 at 13q13.3 (risk allele frequency = 3.5%; odds ratio = 1.38; P = 2.2 √ó 10-14). This gene encodes a transcription factor involved in gametogenesis that is normally only weakly expressed in plasma cells. The association is represented by 14 variants in linkage disequilibrium. Among these, rs75712673 maps to a genomic region with open chromatin in plasma cells, and upregulates SOHLH2 in this cell type. Moreover, rs75712673 influences transcriptional activity in luciferase assays, and shows a chromatin looping interaction with the SOHLH2 promoter. Our work provides novel insight into MM susceptibility

    Functional dissection of inherited non-coding variation influencing multiple myeloma risk

    Get PDF
    Thousands of non-coding variants have been associated with increased risk of human diseases, yet the causal variants and their mechanisms-of-action remain obscure. In an integrative study combining massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), expression analyses (eQTL, meQTL, PCHiC) and chromatin accessibility analyses in primary cells (caQTL), we investigate 1,039 variants associated with multiple myeloma (MM). We demonstrate that MM susceptibility is mediated by gene-regulatory changes in plasma cells and B-cells, and identify putative causal variants at six risk loci (SMARCD3, WAC, ELL2, CDCA7L, CEP120, and PREX1). Notably, three of these variants co-localize with significant plasma cell caQTLs, signaling the presence of causal activity at these precise genomic positions in an endogenous chromosomal context in vivo. Our results provide a systematic functional dissection of risk loci for a hematologic malignancy

    Sveriges utsl√§pp m√•ste minska nu, regeringen : 531 forskare: Annars √§r sveket monumentalt ‚Äď ni kan inte s√§ga att ni inte visste

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    Deficit of homozygosity among 1.52 million individuals and genetic causes of recessive lethality

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    Abstract Genotypes causing pregnancy loss and perinatal mortality are depleted among living individuals and are therefore difficult to find. To explore genetic causes of recessive lethality, we searched for sequence variants with deficit of homozygosity among 1.52 million individuals from six European populations. In this study, we identified 25 genes harboring protein-altering sequence variants with a strong deficit of homozygosity (10% or less of predicted homozygotes). Sequence variants in 12 of the genes cause Mendelian disease under a recessive mode of inheritance, two under a dominant mode, but variants in the remaining 11 have not been reported to cause disease. Sequence variants with a strong deficit of homozygosity are over-represented among genes essential for growth of human cell lines and genes orthologous to mouse genes known to affect viability. The function of these genes gives insight into the genetics of intrauterine lethality. We also identified 1077 genes with homozygous predicted loss-of-function genotypes not previously described, bringing the total set of genes completely knocked out in humans to 4785
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