746 research outputs found

    An overview of automated manufacturing for composite materials

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    This paper aims to present an overview of composite materials with the focus on automated manufacturing. First, it provides an initial understanding of what composite materials are, their different classifications and their advantages and disadvantages. Then, manufacturing automation is discussed along with the different classifications of robot that are commonly used and the advantages and disadvantages of automation. Market analysis shows that three industries of interest due to their advancements in composite and automated manufacturing are the automotive, aerospace and marine industries. A review of companies currently implementing composite materials and their use of automated manufacturing within these specific industries has therefore been carried out. Finally, research challenges are highlighted, along with directions for future research

    A smart sensor box to increase the adaptability of automated manufacturing

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    A cost-effective and accurate method to add or change sensors in an automated manufacturing line is essential in order to increase the flexibility and adaptability of production systems. In particular, small to medium enterprises (SMEs) and companies offering custom solutions can only compete in the highly interconnected age of Industry 4.0 if their operations are agile and dynamic. This paper presents a new, low-cost solution to this problem through the development of a Smart Sensor Box. The paper introduces the benefits of this highly adaptable system comparing it to currently available solutions, while testing conducted demonstrates the solution’s accuracy and repeatability. The layout and operational capabilities for three versions of the Smart Sensor Box are discussed in detail and example applications are presented

    High-precision UWB based localisation for UAV in extremely confined environments

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    In this paper, a high-precision ultra-wideband (UWB) based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) localisation approach is proposed for applications in extremely confined environments. It is motivated by the emerging demand on autonomous inspection in such environments that are hard or impossible for humans to access. Instead of the traditional localisation techniques such as global positioning system (GPS), vision based or other localisation techniques, the UWB based localisation technique is adopted for precise UAV positioning due to its high accuracy, implementation simplicity and suitability in such environments. To avoid the requirement on strict synchronisation between sensor nodes and provide decimetre-level accuracy, the proposed algorithm combined the two-way time-of-flight (TW-TOF) localisation scheme with the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. This differs from applications in other environments, the number and deployment area of anchor nodes are highly restricted in such environments. Therefore, an in-depth investigation for the anchor deployment strategies is presented to find the most suitable geometry configurations with accurate and robust performance. Finally, extensive simulations, static experiments and flight tests have been conducted to validate the localisation performance under different deployment strategies. The experiments show that average localisation error and standard deviation (STD) under 0.2 m and 0.07 m are obtainable by using our proposed approach under three different geometry configurations of anchor nodes. This is suitable for different applications in extremely confined environments

    Stereo vision-based autonomous navigation for oil and gas pressure vessel inspection using a low-cost UAV

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    It is vital to visually inspect pressure vessels regularly in the oil and gas company to maintain their integrity. Compared with visual inspection conducted by sending engineers and ground vehicles into the pressure vessel, utilising an autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can overcome many limitations including high labour intensity, low efficiency and high risk to human health. This work focuses on enhancing some existing technologies to support low-cost UAV autonomous navigation for visual inspection of oil and gas pressure vessels. The UAV can gain the ability to follow the planned trajectory autonomously to record videos with a stereo camera in the pressure vessel, which is a GPS-denied and low-illumination environment. Particularly, the ORB-SLAM3 is improved by adopting the image contrast enhancement technique to locate the UAV in this challenging scenario. What is more, a vision hybrid Proportional-Proportional-Integral-Derivative (P-PID) position tracking controller is integrated to control the movement of the UAV. The ROS-Gazebo-PX4 simulator is customised deeply to validate the developed stereo vision-based autonomous navigation approach. It is verified that compared with the ORB-SLAM3, the numbers of ORB feature points and effective matching points obtained by the improved ORB-SLAM3 are increased by more than 400% and 600%, respectively. Thereby, the improved ORB-SLAM3 is effective and robust enough for UAV self-localisation, and the developed stereo vision-based autonomous navigation approach can be deployed for pressure vessel visual inspectio

    Search for Physics beyond the Standard Model in Events with Overlapping Photons and Jets

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    Results are reported from a search for new particles that decay into a photon and two gluons, in events with jets. Novel jet substructure techniques are developed that allow photons to be identified in an environment densely populated with hadrons. The analyzed proton-proton collision data were collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in 2016 at root s = 13 TeV, and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The spectra of total transverse hadronic energy of candidate events are examined for deviations from the standard model predictions. No statistically significant excess is observed over the expected background. The first cross section limits on new physics processes resulting in such events are set. The results are interpreted as upper limits on the rate of gluino pair production, utilizing a simplified stealth supersymmetry model. The excluded gluino masses extend up to 1.7 TeV, for a neutralino mass of 200 GeV and exceed previous mass constraints set by analyses targeting events with isolated photons.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV