1,361 research outputs found

    Associations between child maltreatment and adolescents’ health-related quality of life and emotional and social problems in low-income families, and the moderating role of social support

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    This study aimed to examine the associations between different types of child maltreatment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and emotional and social problems in adolescents, and to examine the moderating effect of social support on those associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and June 2016 in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 351 parent and adolescent dyads from low-income families. The parents reported on child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological aggression, and neglect), and the adolescents reported on their HRQoL, emotional problems, and social problems. The adolescents’ perceived social support was included as a potential moderator. Results of the study show that child physical abuse was strongly associated with emotional and social problems (B = 0.91-1.45, p < .05). Lower overall HRQoL was associated with psychological aggression (B = −3.96, p < .05) and neglect (B = −4.14, p < .05). Physical functioning was affected by psychological aggression (B = −3.16, p < .05), and emotional functioning was affected by neglect (B = −4.82, p < .05). Social functioning was impacted by all three types of maltreatment (B = −9.16 to −5.26, p < .05). This study extends previous literature by showing the varying effects of different types of child maltreatment on children’s health in the context of low-income families. The findings of this study also support that peer social support may buffer the effects of child physical abuse on adolescents’ emotional and social problems

    Associations between child maltreatment and adolescents’ health-related quality of life and emotional and social problems in low-income families, and the moderating role of social support

    Get PDF
    This study aimed to examine the associations between different types of child maltreatment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and emotional and social problems in adolescents, and to examine the moderating effect of social support on those associations. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and June 2016 in Hong Kong. The sample comprised 351 parent and adolescent dyads from low-income families. The parents reported on child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological aggression, and neglect), and the adolescents reported on their HRQoL, emotional problems, and social problems. The adolescents’ perceived social support was included as a potential moderator. Results of the study show that child physical abuse was strongly associated with emotional and social problems (B = 0.91-1.45, p < .05). Lower overall HRQoL was associated with psychological aggression (B = −3.96, p < .05) and neglect (B = −4.14, p < .05). Physical functioning was affected by psychological aggression (B = −3.16, p < .05), and emotional functioning was affected by neglect (B = −4.82, p < .05). Social functioning was impacted by all three types of maltreatment (B = −9.16 to −5.26, p < .05). This study extends previous literature by showing the varying effects of different types of child maltreatment on children’s health in the context of low-income families. The findings of this study also support that peer social support may buffer the effects of child physical abuse on adolescents’ emotional and social problems

    PLASER: Pronunciation Learning via Automatic Speech Recognition

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    PLASER is a multimedia tool with instant feedback designed to teach English pronunciation for high-school students of Hong Kong whose mother tongue is Cantonese Chinese. The objective is to teach correct pronunciation and not to assess a student's overall pronunciation quality. Major challenges related to speech recognition technology include: allowance for non-native accent, reliable and corrective feedbacks, and visualization of errors

    Modifiable factors for the trajectory of health-related quality of life among youth growing up in poverty: a prospective cohort study

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    Poverty is a decisive risk factor for poor health and well-being, and its negative consequences could be more severe and substantial among children. Understanding the factors associated with improvement in well-being is vital to design interventions. This is a prospective cohort study of 546 youth growing up in families in poverty in Hong Kong. All participants were assessed twice, in 2016 and 2019, in regard to their physical and mental health, as well as for different economic, social, and psychological variables. The results show that approximately 41% experienced an improvement in their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Findings from the logistic regression analyses suggest that the health and development of youth in poverty may be restored by promoting social support, a sense of hope, future orientation, job stability, and money management practices, such as savings, during childhood and adolescence. The findings shed light on future policy making and forms of service development that could help to end the vicious cycle of poverty and hampered health

    Complete Sequencing of pNDM-HK Encoding NDM-1 Carbapenemase from a Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Strain Isolated in Hong Kong

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    BACKGROUND: The emergence of plasmid-mediated carbapenemases, such as NDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae is a major public health issue. Since they mediate resistance to virtually all β-lactam antibiotics and there is often co-resistance to other antibiotic classes, the therapeutic options for infections caused by these organisms are very limited. METHODOLOGY: We characterized the first NDM-1 producing E. coli isolate recovered in Hong Kong. The plasmid encoding the metallo-β-lactamase gene was sequenced. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The plasmid, pNDM-HK readily transferred to E. coli J53 at high frequencies. It belongs to the broad host range IncL/M incompatibility group and is 88803 bp in size. Sequence alignment showed that pNDM-HK has a 55 kb backbone which shared 97% homology with pEL60 originating from the plant pathogen, Erwina amylovora in Lebanon and a 28.9 kb variable region. The plasmid backbone includes the mucAB genes mediating ultraviolet light resistance. The 28.9 kb region has a composite transposon-like structure which includes intact or truncated genes associated with resistance to β-lactams (bla(TEM-1), bla(NDM-1), Δbla(DHA-1)), aminoglycosides (aacC2, armA), sulphonamides (sul1) and macrolides (mel, mph2). It also harbors the following mobile elements: IS26, ISCR1, tnpU, tnpAcp2, tnpD, ΔtnpATn1 and insL. Certain blocks within the 28.9 kb variable region had homology with the corresponding sequences in the widely disseminated plasmids, pCTX-M3, pMUR050 and pKP048 originating from bacteria in Poland in 1996, in Spain in 2002 and in China in 2006, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: The genetic support of NDM-1 gene suggests that it has evolved through complex pathways. The association with broad host range plasmid and multiple mobile genetic elements explain its observed horizontal mobility in multiple bacterial taxa

    Pain Controlling and Cytokine-regulating Effects of Lyprinol, a Lipid Extract of Perna Canaliculus, in a Rat Adjuvant-induced Arthritis Model

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    Using an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model, we investigated the effects of a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus (Lyprinol®) on pain. Radiological examinations, as well as levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory (AI) cytokines, were measured aiming to provide independent objective data to the pain controlling investigation. We confirmed the ability of Lyprinol® to control pain at the initial phase of its administration; with similar efficacy to that observed with Naproxen. The pain scores slowly increased again in the group of rats treated with Lyprinol® after day 9–14. The Naproxen-treated rats remained pain-free while treated. Both Naproxen and Lyprinol® decreased the levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ, and increased that of IL-10. Extra-virgin olive oil was ineffective on cytokine secretion. Rats treated with Lyprinol® were apparently cured after 1 year. This study confirms the AI efficacy of this lipid extract of P. canaliculus, its initial analgesic effect, its perfect tolerance and its long-term healing properties

    Five‐year effectiveness of bariatric surgery on disease remission, weight loss, and changes of metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: A population‐based propensity score‐matched cohort study

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    Aims: To compare disease remission rates, weight loss, and changes of metabolic parameters of patients after bariatric surgery with nonsurgical patients. Methods: Based on the 2006‐2017 Hospital Authority database, a population‐based retrospective cohort of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with and without bariatric surgery were identified. Surgical patients were matched with nonsurgical patients on 1‐to‐5 propensity score. Remission rates of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia were reported annually up to 60 months. Changes in weight loss measurements (Body Mass Index [BMI], percentage of total weight loss [%TWL], percentage of excess weight loss [%EWL], and percentage of rebound in excess weight loss [%REWL]) and metabolic parameters (haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL‐C]) were measured for both groups. Results: Four hundred one surgical patients (310 restrictive surgeries; 91 bypass surgeries) and 1894 nonsurgical patients were included. Surgical patients had higher remission rates in diabetes and dyslipidaemia and better glycaemic control at 12 to 60 months (all Ps < .01). SBP and DBP were significantly lower for surgical group up to 12 months and similar between two groups after 12 months. Surgical patients had significantly lower BMI during follow‐up period. %TWL and %EWL were higher in the surgery group (15.7% vs 3.7%; 48.8% vs 12.0%) at 60 months (P < .001); differences in %REWL between two groups were insignificant. The effectiveness of restrictive and bypass surgeries was similar at 60 months, although restrictive surgeries were slightly more effective in T2DM remission. Conclusions: Bariatric surgery was effective in weight loss, remission of diabetes, and dyslipidaemia in 5‐year post‐surgery

    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

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    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the first interferometer dedicated to studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at 3mm wavelength. The choice of 3mm was made to minimize the contributions from foreground synchrotron radiation and Galactic dust emission. The initial configuration of seven 0.6m telescopes mounted on a 6-m hexapod platform was dedicated in October 2006 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Scientific operations began with the detection of a number of clusters of galaxies via the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. We compare our data with Subaru weak lensing data in order to study the structure of dark matter. We also compare our data with X-ray data in order to derive the Hubble constant.Comment: accepted for publication in ApJ (13 pages, 7 figures); a version with high resolution figures available at http://www.asiaa.sinica.edu.tw/~keiichi/upfiles/AMiBA7/pho_highreso.pd

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London
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