20,910 research outputs found

### The role of entanglement in dynamical evolution

Entanglement or entanglement generating interactions permit to achieve the
maximum allowed speed in the dynamical evolution of a composite system, when
the energy resources are distributed among subsystems. The cases of
pre-existing entanglement and of entanglement-building interactions are
separately addressed. The role of classical correlations is also discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure. Revised versio

### Characterization of Collective Gaussian Attacks and Security of Coherent-State Quantum Cryptography

We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian
attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such
general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are
achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and
one-way classical communication.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure + 1 Table, REVteX. More descriptive titl

### Quantum computation over continuous variables

This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing a
universal quantum computer over continuous variables. As an example, it is
shown how a universal quantum computer for the amplitudes of the
electromagnetic field might be constructed using simple linear devices such as
beam-splitters and phase shifters, together with squeezers and nonlinear
devices such as Kerr-effect fibers and atoms in optical cavities. Such a device
could in principle perform `quantum floating point' computations. Problems of
noise, finite precision, and error correction are discussed.Comment: 9 pages, Te

### Compressing Word Embeddings

Recent methods for learning vector space representations of words have
succeeded in capturing fine-grained semantic and syntactic regularities using
vector arithmetic. However, these vector space representations (created through
large-scale text analysis) are typically stored verbatim, since their internal
structure is opaque. Using word-analogy tests to monitor the level of detail
stored in compressed re-representations of the same vector space, the
trade-offs between the reduction in memory usage and expressiveness are
investigated. A simple scheme is outlined that can reduce the memory footprint
of a state-of-the-art embedding by a factor of 10, with only minimal impact on
performance. Then, using the same `bit budget', a binary (approximate)
factorisation of the same space is also explored, with the aim of creating an
equivalent representation with better interpretability.Comment: 10 pages, 0 figures, submitted to ICONIP-2016. Previous experimental
results were submitted to ICLR-2016, but the paper has been significantly
updated, since a new experimental set-up worked much bette

### A quantum algorithm providing exponential speed increase for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors

We describe a new polynomial time quantum algorithm that uses the quantum
fast fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian
operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics
and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require
exponential time. Applications of the algorithm to specific problems are
considered, and we find that classically intractable and interesting problems
from atomic physics may be solved with between 50 and 100 quantum bits.Comment: 10 page

### Macroevolutionary Patterns In The Evolutionary Radiation Of Archosaurs (Tetrapoda: Diapsida)

The rise of archosaurs during the Triassic and Early Jurassic has been treated as a classic example of an evolutionary radiation in the fossil record. This paper reviews published studies and provides new data on archosaur lineage origination, diversity and lineage evolution, morphological disparity, rates of morphological character change, and faunal abundance during the Triassicâ€“Early Jurassic. The fundamental archosaur lineages originated early in the Triassic, in concert with the highest rates of character change. Disparity and diversity peaked later, during the Norian, but the most significant increase in disparity occurred before maximum diversity. Archosaurs were rare components of Earlyâ€“Middle Triassic faunas, but were more abundant in the Late Triassic and pre-eminent globally by the Early Jurassic. The archosaur radiation was a drawn-out event and major components such as diversity and abundance were discordant from each other. Crurotarsans (crocodile-line archosaurs) were more disparate, diverse, and abundant than avemetatarsalians (bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs) during the Late Triassic, but these roles were reversed in the Early Jurassic. There is no strong evidence that dinosaurs outcompeted or gradually eclipsed crurotarsans during the Late Triassic. Instead, crurotarsan diversity decreased precipitously by the end-Triassic extinction, which helped usher in the age of dinosaurian dominance

### Analytic Solution for the Ground State Energy of the Extensive Many-Body Problem

A closed form expression for the ground state energy density of the general
extensive many-body problem is given in terms of the Lanczos tri-diagonal form
of the Hamiltonian. Given the general expressions of the diagonal and
off-diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian Lanczos matrix, $\alpha_n(N)$ and
$\beta_n(N)$, asymptotic forms $\alpha(z)$ and $\beta(z)$ can be defined in
terms of a new parameter $z\equiv n/N$ ($n$ is the Lanczos iteration and $N$ is
the size of the system). By application of theorems on the zeros of orthogonal
polynomials we find the ground-state energy density in the bulk limit to be
given in general by ${\cal E}_0 = {\rm inf}\,\left[\alpha(z) -
2\,\beta(z)\right]$.Comment: 10 pages REVTex3.0, 3 PS figure

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