20,910 research outputs found

    The role of entanglement in dynamical evolution

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    Entanglement or entanglement generating interactions permit to achieve the maximum allowed speed in the dynamical evolution of a composite system, when the energy resources are distributed among subsystems. The cases of pre-existing entanglement and of entanglement-building interactions are separately addressed. The role of classical correlations is also discussed.Comment: 5 pages, 1 figure. Revised versio

    Characterization of Collective Gaussian Attacks and Security of Coherent-State Quantum Cryptography

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    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure + 1 Table, REVteX. More descriptive titl

    Quantum computation over continuous variables

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    This paper provides necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing a universal quantum computer over continuous variables. As an example, it is shown how a universal quantum computer for the amplitudes of the electromagnetic field might be constructed using simple linear devices such as beam-splitters and phase shifters, together with squeezers and nonlinear devices such as Kerr-effect fibers and atoms in optical cavities. Such a device could in principle perform `quantum floating point' computations. Problems of noise, finite precision, and error correction are discussed.Comment: 9 pages, Te

    Compressing Word Embeddings

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    Recent methods for learning vector space representations of words have succeeded in capturing fine-grained semantic and syntactic regularities using vector arithmetic. However, these vector space representations (created through large-scale text analysis) are typically stored verbatim, since their internal structure is opaque. Using word-analogy tests to monitor the level of detail stored in compressed re-representations of the same vector space, the trade-offs between the reduction in memory usage and expressiveness are investigated. A simple scheme is outlined that can reduce the memory footprint of a state-of-the-art embedding by a factor of 10, with only minimal impact on performance. Then, using the same `bit budget', a binary (approximate) factorisation of the same space is also explored, with the aim of creating an equivalent representation with better interpretability.Comment: 10 pages, 0 figures, submitted to ICONIP-2016. Previous experimental results were submitted to ICLR-2016, but the paper has been significantly updated, since a new experimental set-up worked much bette

    A quantum algorithm providing exponential speed increase for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors

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    We describe a new polynomial time quantum algorithm that uses the quantum fast fourier transform to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a Hamiltonian operator, and that can be applied in cases (commonly found in ab initio physics and chemistry problems) for which all known classical algorithms require exponential time. Applications of the algorithm to specific problems are considered, and we find that classically intractable and interesting problems from atomic physics may be solved with between 50 and 100 quantum bits.Comment: 10 page

    Macroevolutionary Patterns In The Evolutionary Radiation Of Archosaurs (Tetrapoda: Diapsida)

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    The rise of archosaurs during the Triassic and Early Jurassic has been treated as a classic example of an evolutionary radiation in the fossil record. This paper reviews published studies and provides new data on archosaur lineage origination, diversity and lineage evolution, morphological disparity, rates of morphological character change, and faunal abundance during the Triassic–Early Jurassic. The fundamental archosaur lineages originated early in the Triassic, in concert with the highest rates of character change. Disparity and diversity peaked later, during the Norian, but the most significant increase in disparity occurred before maximum diversity. Archosaurs were rare components of Early–Middle Triassic faunas, but were more abundant in the Late Triassic and pre-eminent globally by the Early Jurassic. The archosaur radiation was a drawn-out event and major components such as diversity and abundance were discordant from each other. Crurotarsans (crocodile-line archosaurs) were more disparate, diverse, and abundant than avemetatarsalians (bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs) during the Late Triassic, but these roles were reversed in the Early Jurassic. There is no strong evidence that dinosaurs outcompeted or gradually eclipsed crurotarsans during the Late Triassic. Instead, crurotarsan diversity decreased precipitously by the end-Triassic extinction, which helped usher in the age of dinosaurian dominance

    Analytic Solution for the Ground State Energy of the Extensive Many-Body Problem

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    A closed form expression for the ground state energy density of the general extensive many-body problem is given in terms of the Lanczos tri-diagonal form of the Hamiltonian. Given the general expressions of the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian Lanczos matrix, αn(N)\alpha_n(N) and βn(N)\beta_n(N), asymptotic forms α(z)\alpha(z) and β(z)\beta(z) can be defined in terms of a new parameter zn/Nz\equiv n/N (nn is the Lanczos iteration and NN is the size of the system). By application of theorems on the zeros of orthogonal polynomials we find the ground-state energy density in the bulk limit to be given in general by E0=inf[α(z)2β(z)]{\cal E}_0 = {\rm inf}\,\left[\alpha(z) - 2\,\beta(z)\right].Comment: 10 pages REVTex3.0, 3 PS figure
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