1,550 research outputs found

    Influence of biological matrix and artificial electrospun scaffolds on proliferation, differentiation and trophic factor synthesis of rat embryonic stem cells.

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    Abstract Two-dimensional vs three-dimensional culture conditions, such as the presence of extracellular matrix components, could deeply influence the cell fate and properties. In this paper we investigated proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis, growth and neurotrophic factor synthesis of rat embryonic stem cells (RESCs) cultured in 2D and 3D conditions generated using Cultrex® Basement Membrane Extract (BME) and in poly-( l -lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun sub-micrometric fibres. It is demonstrated that, in the absence of other instructive stimuli, growth, differentiation and paracrine activity of RESCs are directly affected by the different microenvironment provided by the scaffold. In particular, RESCs grown on an electrospun PLLA scaffolds coated or not with BME have a higher proliferation rate, higher production of bioactive nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared to standard 2D conditions, lasting for at least 2 weeks. Due to the high mechanical flexibility of PLLA electrospun scaffolds, the PLLA/stem cell culture system offers an interesting potential for implantable neural repair devices

    Accounting students' IT applicaton skills over a 10-year period

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    This paper reports on the changing nature of a range of information technology (IT) application skills that students declare on entering an accounting degree over the period from 1996 to 2006. Accounting educators need to be aware of the IT skills students bring with them to university because of the implications this has for learning and teaching within the discipline and the importance of both general and specific IT skills within the practice and craft of accounting. Additionally, IT skills constitute a significant element within the portfolio of employability skills that are increasingly demanded by employers and emphasized within the overall Higher Education (HE) agenda. The analysis of students' reported IT application skills on entry to university, across a range of the most relevant areas of IT use in accounting, suggest that their skills have continued to improve over time. However, there are significant differential patterns of change through the years and within cohorts. The paper addresses the generalizability of these findings and discusses the implications of these factors for accounting educators, including the importance of recognising the differences that are potentially masked by the general increase in skills; the need for further research into the changing nature, and implications, of the gender gap in entrants' IT application skills; and the low levels of entrants' spreadsheet and database skills that are a cause for concern

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum

    Search for a vector-like quark T′ → tH via the diphoton decay mode of the Higgs boson in proton-proton collisions at s \sqrt{s} = 13 TeV