1,076 research outputs found

    On the Distribution of Neutral Tone in Southern Min: LCC and Beyond

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    The aim of this paper is to address an often-overlooked topic in Southern Min tonology: neutral tone. We show that the tone sandhi domain in Southern Min is not always isomorphic with an XP in syntax or a phonological phrase. In fact, this domain may be smaller than what has been predicted, as evidenced in the phrase-final functional morphemes as well as in the rhythmic effect. We propose that the tone sandhi domain in Southern Min is defined by a constituent Tone Sandhi Domain (TSD, τ) between the p-phrase and the p-word. A TSD is required to bear a final prominence, and only a p-word, mapped from a contentive or focused element in syntax, can be a “prominence-bearing unit.

    Chondroprotective effects and mechanisms of resveratrol in advanced glycation end products-stimulated chondrocytes

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    [[abstract]]INTRODUCTION: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in joints contributes to the pathogenesis of cartilage damage in osteoarthritis (OA). We aim to explore the potential chondroprotective effects of resveratrol on AGEs-stimulated porcine chondrocytes and cartilage explants. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from pig joints. Activation of the IkappaB kinase (IKK)-IkappaBalpha-nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathways was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), Western blot and transfection assay. The levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-NO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured by Western blot, Griess reaction or ELISA. The expression and enzyme activity of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) were determined by real time RT/PCR and gelatin zymography, respectively. RESULTS: We show that AGEs-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 and production of NO and PGE2 were suppressed by resveratrol. Such effects of resveratrol were likely mediated through inhibiting IKK-IkappaBalpha-NF-kappaB and JNK/ERK-AP-1 signaling pathways induced by AGEs. By targeting these critical signaling pathways, resveratrol decreased AGEs-stimulated expression and activity of MMP-13 and prevented AGEs-mediated destruction of collagen II. Histochemistry analysis further confirms that resveratrol could prevent AGEs-induced degradation of proteoglycan and aggrecan in cartilage explants. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals not only the effects and mechanisms regarding how resveratrol may protect cartilage from AGEs-mediated damage but also the potential therapeutic benefit of resveratrol in the treatment of OA

    Kinome-Wide siRNA Screening Identifies Src-Enhanced Resistance of Chemotherapeutic Drugs in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

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    Background: Chemotherapy is the main treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which lack molecular markers for diagnosis and therapy. Cancer cells activate chemoresistant pathways and lead to therapeutic failure for patients with TNBC. Several kinases have been identified as chemoresistant genes. However, the involvement of kinases in the chemoresistance in TNBC cells is not fully understood.Methods: We employed a kinome siRNA library to screen whether targeting any kinases could increase the chemosensitivity of TNBC cell lines. The effects of kinase on cell viability in various breast cancer cells were validated with ATP level and colony formation. Protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by immunoblotting. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was collected to analyze the correlation of Src expression with prognosis of TNBC patients.Results: Primary screening and validation for the initial hits showed that Src kinase was a potential doxorubicin-resistant kinase in the TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T. Both siRNA against Src and the Src inhibitor dasatinib enhanced the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin in TNBC cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), downstream effectors of Src, were accordingly decreased in Src-silenced or -inhibited TNBC cells. Additionally, TCGA data analysis indicated that Src expression levels in tumor tissues were higher than those in tumor-adjacent normal tissues in patients with TNBC. High co-expression level of Src and STAT3 was also significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients.Conclusion: Our results showed that Src-STAT3 axis might be involved in chemoresistance of TNBC cells

    Feasibility of Bispectral Index-Guided Propofol Infusion for Flexible Bronchoscopy Sedation: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB). The bispectral index (BIS) correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group) or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively). The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001), less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively), and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively) compared to the control group.BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815

    Response of sediment bacterial community to triclosan in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms

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    The response of sediment bacterial communities in subtropical freshwater benthic microcosms to sediment-associated triclosan (TCS; 28 d exposure) was analysed using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. This study highlights the interactive effects of TCS and the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates (Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Viviparidae bellamya) on sediment bacterial communities. Our results show that TCS alone significantly altered the taxonomic composition and decreased alpha diversity of sediment bacterial communities at concentrations ≥80 μg TCS/g dry weight (dw) sediment (sed). Regarding dominant phyla, TCS significantly reduced the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes at these concentrations, whereas the relative abundance of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased. In the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates, the sediment bacterial community was affected by 8 μg TCS/g dw sed as well. However, the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates did not cause measurable changes to bacterial community in unspiked (i.e., control) sediment. These results indicate that TCS alone would not alter the sediment bacterial community at environmentally relevant concentrations (up till 8 μg/g dw sed), but may have an effect in combination with the presence of benthic macroinvertebrates. Therefore, we recommend to include benthic macroinvertebrates when assessing the response of sediment bacterial communities during exposure to environmental stress such as organic contaminants.</p

    Genetic Separation of BRCA1 Functions Reveal Mutation-Dependent Polθ Vulnerabilities

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    Homologous recombination (HR)-deficiency induces a dependency on DNA polymerase theta (Polθ/Polq)-mediated end joining, and Polθ inhibitors (Polθi) are in development for cancer therapy. BRCA1 and BRCA2 deficient cells are thought to be synthetic lethal with Polθ, but whether distinct HR gene mutations give rise to equivalent Polθ-dependence, and the events that drive lethality, are unclear. In this study, we utilized mouse models with separate Brca1 functional defects to mechanistically define Brca1-Polθ synthetic lethality. Surprisingly, homozygous Brca1 mutant, Polq−/− cells were viable, but grew slowly and had chromosomal instability. Brca1 mutant cells proficient in DNA end resection were significantly more dependent on Polθ for viability; here, treatment with Polθi elevated RPA foci, which persisted through mitosis. In an isogenic system, BRCA1 null cells were defective, but PALB2 and BRCA2 mutant cells exhibited active resection, and consequently stronger sensitivity to Polθi. Thus, DNA end resection is a critical determinant of Polθi sensitivity in HR-deficient cells, and should be considered when selecting patients for clinical studies

    Women with endometriosis have higher comorbidities: Analysis of domestic data in Taiwan

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    AbstractEndometriosis, defined by the presence of viable extrauterine endometrial glands and stroma, can grow or bleed cyclically, and possesses characteristics including a destructive, invasive, and metastatic nature. Since endometriosis may result in pelvic inflammation, adhesion, chronic pain, and infertility, and can progress to biologically malignant tumors, it is a long-term major health issue in women of reproductive age. In this review, we analyze the Taiwan domestic research addressing associations between endometriosis and other diseases. Concerning malignant tumors, we identified four studies on the links between endometriosis and ovarian cancer, one on breast cancer, two on endometrial cancer, one on colorectal cancer, and one on other malignancies, as well as one on associations between endometriosis and irritable bowel syndrome, one on links with migraine headache, three on links with pelvic inflammatory diseases, four on links with infertility, four on links with obesity, four on links with chronic liver disease, four on links with rheumatoid arthritis, four on links with chronic renal disease, five on links with diabetes mellitus, and five on links with cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, etc.). The data available to date support that women with endometriosis might be at risk of some chronic illnesses and certain malignancies, although we consider the evidence for some comorbidities to be of low quality, for example, the association between colon cancer and adenomyosis/endometriosis. We still believe that the risk of comorbidity might be higher in women with endometriosis than that we supposed before. More research is needed to determine whether women with endometriosis are really at risk of these comorbidities
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